Surface Weather Observations

SWO

browse graphicImage example
The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service (formerly the U.S. Weather Bureau). Other groups, including the U.S. military and local and state governments have also submitted surface weather observations that are part of this collection. All data within the collection consist of tabulated observations at designated land stations. Observations usually include temperature, precipitation, sky conditions, pressure, and other atmospheric phenomena.

Subsets of the collection have been scanned and made available as digital images upon request (see associated resources). These subsets are generally broken down into finer time scale (for example, monthly vs hourly observations) or by a specific time period (for example, pre-1948).
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source.
  • NCEI WebARTIS: SWO
  • gov.noaa.ncdc:C00011
Search Data
  • NCEI WebARTIS (search)
    Search WebARTIS--collection SWO--for more detail about available data in the physical archives.
Order Data
  • EV2 Image Access System (order)
    A subset of the SWO collection can be found in multiple libraries in EV2, including "Surface Weather Observation Forms (1001)" (monthly) and "Surface Weather Observations" (hourly)
Other Access
  • NCEI Customer Support (offlineAccess)
    NCEI provides customers with information and data from the NCEI archive. To order NCEI products and services contact the customer support team.
Distribution Formats
  • PDF
  • MICROFICHE / PAPER / MICROFILM
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Time Period 1890 to Present
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 72.0
S: -15.0
E: -64.0
W: 134.0
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
  • Monthly Weather Observations
  • Surface Weather Observations Hourly
  • Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan
    • SOD Observations - Misawa Japan Landing Page
      A subset the SWO library for Summary of Day observations from Misawa Japan was keyed directly from paper forms and microfiche. Please follow the link for more information about the keyed data.
Publication Dates
  • publication: 1890
Data Presentation Form Hardcopy image - image archived in analog format
Dataset Progress Status Historical archive - data has been stored in an offline storage facility
Data Update Frequency Not planned
Purpose Surface Weather Observations provide invaluable in situ observations to the global community. They provide a snapshot of the climate or weather on a given day or hour, aiding researches in the development of climate and weather models, historical context, and many other purposes.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source.
Cited Authors
  • DOC/NOAA/NWS > National Weather Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • United States Weather Bureau
  • DOD/USNAVY > U.S. Navy, U. S. Department of Defense
  • DOD/USARMY > U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, U. S. Department of Defense
Originators
  • DOC/NOAA/NWS > National Weather Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • United States Weather Bureau
  • DOD/USNAVY > U.S. Navy, U. S. Department of Defense
  • DOD/USARMY > U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, U. S. Department of Defense
Publishers
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Pressure > Anticyclones/Cyclones
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Pressure > Pressure Anomalies
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Solid Precipitation > Hail
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Amount
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Anomalies
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Rate
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Liquid Precipitation > Rain
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Solid Precipitation > Ice Pellets > Sleet
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Solid Precipitation > Snow
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Surface Temperature > Air Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Surface Temperature > Maximum/Minimum Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Surface Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Temperature Anomalies
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Winds > Surface Winds
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Air Temperature
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Precipitation
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Pressure
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Wind Speed And Direction
  • Atmospheric - Upper-air - Cloud Properties
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • Meteorological Stations
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • Thermometers
  • Anemometers
  • Rain Gauges
  • Barometers
  • Visual Observations
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Land Surface
Use Constraints
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source.
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement Paper forms were submitted to the Archive by the United States Weather Bureau and later, its successor, the National Weather Service. Stations were located all over the country, including municipal offices, airports, and other federal sites. Over the years, some of the paper forms were migrated to microfilm and fiche by the archive, then later digitally imaged through the Climate Data Modernization Program. Refer to the associated datasets [subsets] to learn more about the digitization process. Forms that are still only available on paper of fiche can be requested.
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • TEMPERATURE SENSORS
  • DRY BULB THERMOMETERS
  • TEMPERATURE LOGGERS
  • WET BULB THERMOMETERS
  • BAROMETERS
  • ALTIMETERS
  • HYGROMETERS
  • VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
  • WIND VANES
  • ANEMOMETERS
  • RAIN GAUGES
Platform
  • WEATHER STATIONS
Last Modified: 2018-05-25
For questions about the information on this page, please email: ncei.orders@noaa.gov