Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States

Homogenized U.S. hourly wind data

U.S. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data is digital data set DSI-6421, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI; formerly National Climatic Data Center, NCDC). During earlier work at NCDC, it was noted that anemometer elevations at U.S. weather stations (for which metadata related to anemometer height was available) varied widely with time. Between 1931 and 2000, there were up to 12 significant anemometer height changes at some of these stations, and on average there was one change per decade at any station with more than 10 years of record. For example, at Los Angeles International Airport, the anemometer height changed 4 times during the 60 years, varying from 59 ft to 20 ft, while at Edwards Air Force Base, the anemometer height was changed 10 times and varied from 13 ft to 75 ft. Therefore, the elevation homogenization of the near-surface wind time series is a necessary pre-requisite for any climatological assessments. This was done at NCDC, creating the DSI-6421 data set. Stations were included in DSI-6421 on a year-by-year basis, depending upon the availability of anemometer metadata and the number of observations made during a year. The earliest data was from 1931, with very few stations. The number of stations increased during World War II to about 200, decreased briefly after the war, and increased to about 350 during the period 1948-1972 because most first-order (primary) stations qualified for inclusion. After 1972, as the importance of metadata was more widely recognized, the number of qualified stations rose to near 1000 by 1985, and continued at about that number through year 2000. The formulae used were U10g = Ua log[(10-Hsnod)/z0]/log[(Ha - Hsnod)/z0], and U10s = Ua log[10/z0]/log[(Ha - Hsnod)/z0], where z0 is the surface roughness (a function of the presence of snow cover at the site); Hsnod is the snow depth; Ha is the anemometer height above the ground; Ua is the wind speed at the anemometer height; U10g is the speed at 10 m above the ground; and U10s is the speed at 10 m above the surface.
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: NOAA National Climatic Data Center (2002): Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States, DSI-6421. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. [access date].
  • NCEI DSI 6421_01
  • gov.noaa.ncdc:C00391
Other Access
  • NCEI Customer Support (offlineAccess)
    Data in this archival information package are not currently available for public download from NCEI. Please contact NCEI Information Services directly for access to these data.
Distribution Formats
  • ASCII
Ordering Instructions Data in this archival information package are not currently available for public download from NCEI. Please contact NCEI Information Services directly for access to these data.
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Time Period 1931-01-01 to 2000-12-31
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 50.0
S: 24.0
E: -66.0
W: -125.0
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2002
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency Not planned
Purpose To make a wide range of climatic data available to researchers and the public.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: NOAA National Climatic Data Center (2002): Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States, DSI-6421. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. [access date].
Cited Authors
  • Pavel Groisman
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Principal Investigators
  • Pavel Groisman
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Publishers
  • NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Winds > Surface Winds > Wind Speed
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Winds > Surface Winds > Wind Direction
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Altitude > Station Height
  • Anemometer Height Above The Ground
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • Ground Stations
  • In Situ Land-based Platforms > Weather Stations/Networks > ASOS > Automated Surface Observing System
  • In Situ Land-based Platforms > Weather Stations/Networks > AWOS > Automated Weather Observing System
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • Anemometers
  • In Situ/Laboratory Instruments > Recorders/Loggers > AWS > Automated Weather System
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Land Surface
Use Constraints
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: NOAA National Climatic Data Center (2002): Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States, DSI-6421. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. [access date].
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • ANEMOMETERS
  • WIND VANES
Platform
  • WEATHER STATIONS
Last Modified: 2018-05-25
For questions about the information on this page, please email: ncei.orders@noaa.gov