NOAA Climate Data Record of Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Mean Atmospheric Layer Temperature, Version 1.2 (Superseded)

MSU Mean Layer Temperature - NOAA

browse graphicMerged Monthly Deep Layer Temperature
**Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used this version).** The dataset contains three MSU channel-based, monthly gridded atmospheric layer temperature Climate Data Records generated by merging nine NOAA polar orbiting satellites, TRIOS-N and NOAA-6 through NOAA-14. These are temperatures of middle-troposphere (TMT), upper-troposphere (TUT, also known as temperature troposphere stratosphere), and lower-stratosphere (TLS), corresponding to measurements from MSU channels 2, 3, and 4, respectively. These products have global coverage with a 2.5 latitudes by 2.5 longitude grid resolution. Time period is from November 1978 through September 2006. Adjustments of observations included limb-adjustment, diurnal drift corrections, warm target temperature effect, and residual inter-satellite bias removal.
  • Users must cite this dataset as: Cheng-Zhi Zou, Wenhui Wang, Jian Li, and NOAA CDR Program (2014). NOAA Climate Data Record of MSU Mean Layer Temperatures, Version 1.2. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5RB72J1 [access date].
Download Data
Distribution Formats
  • netCDF-4 (Version: 4)
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset resourceProvider Climate Data Record Program Office
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
+1 828-271-4328
cdr-ipt-atmospheric_temp@noaa.gov
Time Period 1978-11 to 2006-09 (time interval: 1-month)
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map
Dataset Information
General Documentation
Processing Documents
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2009-03-05
  • revision: 2014-06-11
Edition Version 1.2
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Purpose The dataset is used for monitoring and investigation of long-term temperature trend and variability for the atmospheric layers as defined by TMT, TUT, and TLS.
Use Limitations
  • The temperatures as defined by the datasets are mean layer temperatures which are not suitable for temperature trend determination at specific atmospheric levels. Satellite retrievals must be conducted to obtain level temperatures.
Dataset Citation
  • Users must cite this dataset as: Cheng-Zhi Zou, Wenhui Wang, Jian Li, and NOAA CDR Program (2014). NOAA Climate Data Record of MSU Mean Layer Temperatures, Version 1.2. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5RB72J1 [access date].
Cited Authors
  • Cheng-Zhi Zou
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/STAR > Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Originators
  • Cheng-Zhi Zou
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/STAR > Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Publishers
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Climate Indicators > Atmospheric/Ocean Indicators > Temperature Indicators
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Upper Air Temperature
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/STAR > Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • Earth Observation Satellites > NOAA POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites)
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • MSU > Microwave Sounding Unit
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Geographic Region > Global
Use Constraints
  • **Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used this version).**
  • Users must cite this dataset as: Cheng-Zhi Zou, Wenhui Wang, Jian Li, and NOAA CDR Program (2014). NOAA Climate Data Record of MSU Mean Layer Temperatures, Version 1.2. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5RB72J1 [access date].
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement The Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) on board the NOAA Polar Orbiting Satellite series (POES) have been the primary instruments for measuring upper-air temperature profiles under all weather conditions, excluding precipitation, during 1978-2007. MSU was a microwave Dicke radiometer with four-channels to make passive measurements in the 5.5 millimeter oxygen region. The radiance measured by each frequency channel comes from a different layer of the atmosphere, depending on the strength of the absorption at that frequency. The percentage contribution of individual levels within the layer to the measured layer temperature is represented by a vertical weighting function, which is typically bell-shaped, peaking at a certain level in the height coordinate. Among these, MSU channel 1 (50.3 GHz) measured surface temperature, while channels 2, 3 and 4 measured temperatures of the middle-troposphere (TMT), upper-troposphere (TUT), and lower-stratosphere (TLS) with their weighting functions peaking respectively near 550, 250, and 100 hPa. By merging MSU observations from different satellites, long-term temperature time series are obtained for these layers for climate trend monitoring and investigation. Due to stability, continuity, global coverage, and insensitive to clouds, these time series are broadly used as an indicator of global warming.
Processor
  • NOAA/NESDIS/Center for Satellite Applications and Research
Processing Steps
  • The following steps and algorithms are needed to derive the atmospheric layer temperature TCDR: 1) Extracting limb-adjusted MSU swath brightness temperatures on scan positions for channels 2, 3 and 4 from the IMICA calibrated MSU orbital Level-1c datasets. 2) Adjusting the MSU brightness temperatures for diurnal drift effect at each scan position. 3) Binning limb- and diurnal-adjusted brightness temperatures at scan positions into grid cells of 2.50x2.50 spatial resolution in monthly interval for each satellite and then averaging the binned data at each grid cell to produce Level-3 layer temperature data for each satellite. 4) Removing residual inter-satellite biases including instrument temperature effect using satellite overlap observations of the Level-3 data. 5) Bias-removed, multiple satellite Level-3 temperature data are then averaged to generate a 28-year long, merged and homogeneous layer temperature TCDR from 1978 to 2007. The final product is saved as NetCDF format
    Rationale: The main purpose of the merging algorithm or processing steps is to derive homogeneous temperature CDR from the sequential overlapping MSU observations onboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites channel by channel. Deriving such time series requires a number of steps: 1) Inter-calibrating the satellite sensors, 2) Removing instrument temperature effects on observations, 3) Adjusting the observations to a common reference time (usually chosen as local noon time) to minimize diurnal effect related to satellite orbital drifts, 4) Adjusting observations made at different viewing angles to nadir views (limb effect), 5) Removing residual inter-satellite biases and their drifts. The Level-1c radiances data used for deriving the layer temperature TCDR were already inter-calibrated by the Integrated Microwave Inter-Calibration Approach (IMICA, formerly known as simultaneous nadir overpass approach; Zou and Wang 2013). In addition, limb-adjusted brightness temperatures are also provided in the IMICA calibrated Level-1c files. As such, only adjustments other than sensor inter-calibrations and limb-adjustments were needed for satellite merging. The IMICA calibrated MSU radiances and limb adjustments were described in details in the C-ATBD associated with the MSU Level-1c radiance dataset (Zou and Wang 2013). This has substantially simplified the processing procedure for developing MSU layer temperature TCDR.
Processing Environment Computer hardware minimum configuration for data processing is as follows: Processor: 2.0GHz, Memory: 100 MB, Disk Space 100 GB, A system with multiple CPUs is preferred, Operating System can be Linux or Windows, Programming Languages: JAVA and Bash script, Compilers: Sun JAVA Compiler, External Library : NetCDF-JAVA 4.1; Jscience4.3, Storage Requirement : 100GB, Execution Time Requirement: Single CPU ~20 hours for 9 satellites, Varied when using parallel computing
Processing Documents
Source Datasets
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Last Modified: 2018-05-25
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