NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Analysis, Version 2

Sea Surface Temperature - Optimum Interpolation

browse graphicSea Surface Temperature image
This high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis product was developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The SST analysis has a spatial grid resolution of 0.25 (1/4) degree and temporal resolution of 1 day. The product uses Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data from the Pathfinder AVHRR SST dataset when available for September 1981 through December 2005, and the operational Navy AVHRR Multi-Channel SST data for 2006 to the present day. Pathfinder AVHRR SST was chosen because of good agreement with the in situ observation data. The product also uses sea ice datasets, in situ data from ships and buoys, and includes a large-scale adjustment of satellite biases with respect to the in situ data. In areas where sea ice is present, SST is estimated from sea ice concentration datasets from NASA GSFC before 2005 and then from NOAA NCEP from 2005 onwards. Preliminary products are produced daily in near real-time (1-day latency) and may be updated in the first few days if critical input data become available after the initial production time. After two weeks, a complete or final product is generated with no additional changes expected. The preliminary products from near real-time data productions began in October 2008 for Version 2.0. The product is in netCDF-3 following the Climate and Forecast (CF) Conventions, and is accompanied by algorithm documentation, data flow diagram and source code under the NOAA CDR Program.
  • Cite dataset when used as a source: Richard W. Reynolds, Viva F. Banzon, and NOAA CDR Program (2008): NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Analysis, Version 2. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5SQ8XB5 [access date].
Search Data
Download Data
Distribution Formats
  • NetCDF (Version: 3)
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact NOAA Climate Data Record Program Office
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
+1 (828) 271-4800
oisst_contacts@noaa.gov
Time Period 1981-09-01 to Present (time interval: 1-day)
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Processing Documents
  • CDR Source Code
    • CDR Source Code (download)
      This source code is for reference only. The source code is provided to maintain transparency of the algorithm and processes used in creating the Climate Data Record (CDR). The source code is not intended to be portable to any computer system(s) beyond that of the original CDR producer's environment.
  • CDR Data Flow Diagram
  • Climate Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2008-11-12
Edition Version 2
Data Presentation Form Digital image
Dataset Progress Status Ongoing - data is continually being updated
Data Update Frequency Daily
Supplemental Information
A companion OISST product was produced using a combination of data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer from NASA Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and AVHRR with coverage from June 2002 through October 2011, when the AMSR-E instrument ceased to function properly.
Purpose This dataset provides a high quality Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature. The NOAA 1/4 degree daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) provides complete ocean temperature fields constructed by combining bias-adjusted observations from different platforms (satellite, ships, buoys) on a regular global grid, with gaps filled in by interpolation. Satellite data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) provides the main input which permits the high temporal-spatial coverage beginning in late 1981 to the present; this must be adjusted to the buoys due to erroneous cold SSTs following the Mount Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Applications include climate modelling, resource management, ecological studies on annual to daily scales.
Use Limitations
  • See the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for a description of use limitations.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite dataset when used as a source: Richard W. Reynolds, Viva F. Banzon, and NOAA CDR Program (2008): NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Analysis, Version 2. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5SQ8XB5 [access date].
Cited Authors
  • Reynolds, Richard W.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Banzon, Viva F.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • NOAA CDR Program
Principal Investigators
  • Reynolds, Richard W.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Banzon, Viva F.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborators
  • NOAA CDR Program
Publishers
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Oceanic - Surface - Sea-surface Temperature
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • AVHRR > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Geographic Region > Global Ocean
Project keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) Program
  • NOAA OneStop Project
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Sea Surface
Use Constraints
  • Cite dataset when used as a source: Richard W. Reynolds, Viva F. Banzon, and NOAA CDR Program (2008): NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Analysis, Version 2. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5SQ8XB5 [access date].
  • See the Use Agreement for this CDR available on the CDR page.
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement This dataset was produced by and is archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).
Processor
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Processing Steps
  • For a description of the processing steps, see the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document and Data Flow Diagram for this dataset.
Processing Documents
    • CDR Source Code
      • CDR Source Code (download)
        This source code is for reference only. The source code is provided to maintain transparency of the algorithm and processes used in creating the Climate Data Record (CDR). The source code is not intended to be portable to any computer system(s) beyond that of the original CDR producer's environment.
Source Datasets
  • NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR SST (PFSST)
    • Navy 6-hourly AVHRR SST data
      • International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Dataset (ICOADS) Release 2.5
        • Global Telecommunications System (GTS) SST observations from ships and buoys (moored and drifting)
          • NASA GSFC Sea Ice Concentration
            • NOAA NCEP 1/2 Degree Grid Sea Ice Concentration
              • Land/Sea Mask
                Lineage information for: repository
                Processing Steps
                • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                Last Modified: 2018-05-25
                For questions about the information on this page, please email: ncei.orders@noaa.gov