NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance from AVHRR, Version 1.0

AVHRR Radiances - NASA

browse graphicSample image from dataset
The AVHRR visible gains and offsets convert GAC pixel level counts to radiances and are provided for each visible band encompassing TIROS-N, NOAA-6 through NOAA-19 and Metop-A and B satellites. The resulting radiances are referenced to the Aqua-MODIS band 1 and 2 absolute calibration. Instructions are also given to convert AVHRR-3 (NOAA-15 to Metop-B) GAC high and low gain counts to the proper radiance. The gains vary temporally and are given as a function of day since launch, where the launch date is provided. The satellite and band specific solar constants are also provided to convert radiances into reflectances based on the solar incoming irradiance used by the MODIS Science Team. The resulting radiance uncertainty is given in %. The calibration coefficients are only valid for the start and end dates listed for each satellite. Three data variables are derived from 4 km AVHRR Global Area Coverage data: Calibrated 0.63 micron channel reflectance (unitless), Calibrated 0.86 micron reflectance (unitless), Calibrated 1.61 micron reflectance (unitless)
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: Doelling, David; Minnis, Patrick; and the NOAA CDR Program (2015): NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance from GOES and AVHRR, Version 1.0. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.789/V5NK3C0J [access date].
Download Data
Distribution Formats
  • netCDF (Version: 4)
    • File Specification: The NetCDF data files comply with the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions and the NetCDF Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD).
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact NOAA Climate Data Record Program Office
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
+1 828-271-4800
cdr-ipt-cloud_bundle@noaa.gov
Time Period 1978-11-05 to Present (time interval: 2-hour)
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Processing Documents
  • Source Code Package for AVHRR Radiances - NASA
    • CDR Source Code (download)
      This source code is for reference only. The source code is provided to maintain transparency of the algorithm and processes used in creating the Climate Data Record (CDR). The source code is not intended to be portable to any computer system(s) beyond that of the original CDR producer's environment.
  • Calibration Coefficients for AVHRR Radiances - NASA
    • Calibrartion Coefficients (download)
      This code is for reference only. The code is provided to maintain transparency of the algorithm and processes used in creating the Climate Data Record (CDR). The code is not intended to be portable to any computer system(s) beyond that of the original CDR producer's environment.
  • NASA LaRC AVHRR & GOES Shortwave Channel Calibration FCDR Top Level Flowchart
  • Climate Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for AVHRR Radiances - NASA -- Calibration of Historical and Future AVHRR and GOES Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2015-08-01
Edition Version 1.0
Data Presentation Form Digital image
Dataset Progress Status Ongoing - data is continually being updated
Data Update Frequency Monthly
Purpose The visible calibration coefficients are designed for cloud, land use, and radiation imager retrieval algorithms to provide consistent 35+year climate quality retrievals over time and across satellite platforms. The satellite-based visible calibration uncertainties are provided as a quality indicator of the calibration coefficients. The calibration coefficients are referenced to the Aqua-MODIS band 1 and 2 absolute calibration. The visible calibration coefficients were derived over deep convective clouds, Sahara and Arabian Desert sites, as well as the Dome-C and Greenland pseudo invariant targets to compensate for individual site stability fluctuations over satellite lifetimes.
Use Limitations
  • See the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for a description of the use limitations for this dataset. Individual satellite AVHRR visible calibration uncertainty will increase over time as the NOAA satellite orbit degrades to either sunset or sunrise. The shorter the spacecraft temporal record the more uncertain the calibration. The space count was not explicitly derived for each satellite and dark calibrated radiances may not be accurate for certain applications, for example over clear-sky ocean and near terminator conditions. Older AVHRR satellite spectral response functions are not as well known and may introduce uncertainties, which cannot be estimated. The calibration coefficients address only the long term optical degradation and does not address detector to detector striping, orbital dependent variation, scan angle dependencies, or instrument noise.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: Doelling, David; Minnis, Patrick; and the NOAA CDR Program (2015): NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance from GOES and AVHRR, Version 1.0. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.789/V5NK3C0J [access date].
Cited Authors
  • Doelling, David
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center
  • Minnis, Patrick
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center
  • NOAA CDR Program
Principal Investigators
  • Doelling, David
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center
  • Minnis, Patrick
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center
Collaborators
  • NOAA CDR Program
Publishers
  • NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Atmosphere > Atmospheric Radiation > Reflectance
  • Atmosphere > Atmospheric Radiation > Shortwave Radiation
  • Atmosphere > Atmospheric Radiation > Solar Radiation
  • Atmosphere > Clouds > Cloud Radiative Transfer
  • Atmosphere > Clouds > Cloud Properties
  • Earth Science > Land Surface > Surface Radiative Properties > Albedo
  • Earth Science > Land Surface > Surface Radiative Properties > Reflectance
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Atmospheric - Composition - Earth Radiation Budget
  • Atmospheric - Composition - Surface Radiation Budget
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Science Directorate, Langley Research Center, NASA
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • TIROS-N > Television Infrared Observation Satellite-N
  • NOAA-6 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-6
  • NOAA-7 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-7
  • NOAA-8 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-8
  • NOAA-9 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-9
  • NOAA-10 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-10
  • NOAA-11 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11
  • NOAA-12 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-12
  • NOAA-14 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
  • NOAA-15 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-15
  • NOAA-16 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
  • NOAA-17 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17
  • NOAA-18 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-18
  • NOAA-19 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-19
  • METOP-A > Meteorological Operational Satellite - A
  • METOP-B > Meteorological Operational Satellite - B
  • GOES-1 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 1
  • GOES-2 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 2
  • GOES-3 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 3
  • GOES-4 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 4
  • GOES-5 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 5
  • GOES-6 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 6
  • GOES-7 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 7
  • GOES-8 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 8
  • GOES-9 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 9
  • GOES-10 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 10
  • GOES-11 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 11
  • GOES-12 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 12
  • GOES-13 > Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 13
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • AVHRR > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
  • AVHRR-2 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2
  • AVHRR-3 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3
  • GOES I-M IMAGER
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Geographic Region > Global
Project keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) Program
  • NOAA OneStop Project
Data Resolution keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Horizontal Data Resolution Keywords
  • 1 km - < 10 km or approximately .01 degree - < .09 degree
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Temporal Data Resolution Keywords
  • Hourly - < Daily
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Vertical Data Resolution Keywords
  • > 1 km
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Boundary Layer
  • Vertical Location > Stratosphere
Use Constraints
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: Doelling, David; Minnis, Patrick; and the NOAA CDR Program (2015): NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance from GOES and AVHRR, Version 1.0. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.789/V5NK3C0J [access date].
  • See the Use Agreement for this CDR available on the CDR page.
  • NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NCEI makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement The data were produced by the NASA Langley Research Center, and are archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Data are converted from GAC pixel counts to radiances; for calibration, these radiances are referenced to the Aqua-MODIS band 1 and 2 absolute calibration before being converted to reflectances based on the solar incoming irradiance used by the MODIS Science Team. For more information, please review the documentation. In 2017, the dataset title was changed to remove reference to GOES. This was done to prevent confusion as GOES data is not used in the dataset--the actual TCDR files where the calibration coefficients were applied only contain the AVHRR data. The publically available calibration coefficient files for the dataset do include the GOES solar calibration coefficients.
Processor
  • NASA Langley Research Center
Processing Steps
  • For a description of the processing steps, see the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document and Data Flow Diagram for this dataset.
Processing Documents
    • Source Code Package for AVHRR Radiances - NASA
      • CDR Source Code (download)
        This source code is for reference only. The source code is provided to maintain transparency of the algorithm and processes used in creating the Climate Data Record (CDR). The source code is not intended to be portable to any computer system(s) beyond that of the original CDR producer's environment.
    • Calibration Coefficients for AVHRR Radiances - NASA
      • Calibrartion Coefficients (download)
        This code is for reference only. The code is provided to maintain transparency of the algorithm and processes used in creating the Climate Data Record (CDR). The code is not intended to be portable to any computer system(s) beyond that of the original CDR producer's environment.
    • NASA LaRC AVHRR & GOES Shortwave Channel Calibration FCDR Top Level Flowchart
    • Climate Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for AVHRR Radiances - NASA -- Calibration of Historical and Future AVHRR and GOES Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors
Source Datasets
  • Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Access Coverage (GAC) data
    • AVHRR GAC data access point
      For more information about the NOAA AVHRR GAC dataset, please refer to the link.
    • Description of Source: AVHRR GAC Data are the primary input into this dataset
    • Temporal extent used: 1978-01-01 to Present
    • Spatial extent used: N:90 S:-90 E:180 W:-180
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Last Modified: 2018-05-04
For questions about the information on this page, please email: ncei.orders@noaa.gov