NOAA Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Mole Fractions from South Pole Observatory

South Pole CO2

browse graphicSouth Pole Atmospheric CO2 Monthly Means
This data set contains continuous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide mole fractions from the NOAA/ESRL observatory at South Pole. Data are expressed in hourly, daily and monthly averages in units of micromole/mole for the time period of 1976-2013. Data are archived at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), but are produced and available from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL).
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division. 2014, updated annually. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Dry Air Mole Fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at South Pole. Compiled by K.W. Thoning, D.R. Kitzis, and A. Crotwell. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Global Monitoring Division (GMD): Boulder, Colorado, USA. Version 2014-08 at http://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5WH2MXN
Download Data
Distribution Formats
  • netCDF-4
  • ASCII Text
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Originator Kirk Thoning
DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
303-497-6078
kirk.thoning@noaa.gov
Time Period 1975-11-25 to 2013-12-31 (time interval: 1-hour)
Spatial Reference System urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: -89.9800
S: -89.9800
E: -24.8000
W: -24.8000
Spatial Coverage Map
Dataset Information
General Documentation
Processing Documents
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2014-08-05
Edition Version 1.0
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Ongoing - data is continually being updated
Data Update Frequency As needed
Purpose NOAA/ESRL/GMD conducts sustained observations and research related to global distributions, trends, sources and sinks of atmospheric constituents that are capable of forcing change in the climate of the Earth. This research will advance climate projections and provide scientific policy-relevant, decision support information to enhance society's ability to plan and respond.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division. 2014, updated annually. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Dry Air Mole Fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at South Pole. Compiled by K.W. Thoning, D.R. Kitzis, and A. Crotwell. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Global Monitoring Division (GMD): Boulder, Colorado, USA. Version 2014-08 at http://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5WH2MXN
Cited Authors
  • Pieter Tans
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Kirk Thoning
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Andrew Crotwell
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Duane Kitzis
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Originators
  • Kirk Thoning
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Andrew Crotwell
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Principal Investigators
  • Pieter Tans
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborators
  • Duane Kitzis
    DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD > NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Publishers
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Chemistry > Carbon And Hydrocarbon Compounds > Carbon Dioxide
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon Dioxide, Methane And Other Greenhouse Gases (including N2o, Cfcs, Hcfcs, Hfcs, Sf6 And Pfcs)
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • ESRL STATIONS > NOAA Earth Science Research Laboratory Stations
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • CO2NDIR > Carbon Dioxide Nondispersive Infrared Analyzer
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Continent > Antarctica
  • South Pole
Project keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • ESRL > Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA)
Data Resolution keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Temporal Data Resolution Keywords
  • Hourly - < Daily
  • Daily - < Weekly
  • Monthly
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Boundary Layer
Use Constraints
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division. 2014, updated annually. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Dry Air Mole Fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at South Pole. Compiled by K.W. Thoning, D.R. Kitzis, and A. Crotwell. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Global Monitoring Division (GMD): Boulder, Colorado, USA. Version 2014-08 at http://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5WH2MXN
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement CO2 mixing ratios reported in these files were measured by a nondispersive infrared absorption technique. Descriptions of the sampling, measurement, and calibration procedures are given in Gillette et al, 1987, and Zhao and Tans, 2006.
Processing Steps
  • Quasi-continuous CO2 dry air mole fractions from 1980 to 2006 have all been recalculated to bring them into the WMO X2007 Mole Fraction Scale (X07). The data since 2007 were already on the X07 scale. WMO X2007 is based on repeated manometric measurements of the NOAA primary standards (Zhao and Tans, 2006) and comparison of those results to similar measurements made over a period of more than 10 years at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The difference between the X07 and the previous scales propagated by SIO and NOAA (X83, X87, etc.) is ~0.2 ppm (X07-previous) in the 1980s, decreasing to ~0.1 ppm in the late 1990s, and to 0.0 ppm by 2006. The recalculation of individual measurements was accomplished by first determining the X07 values for the reference gases used to measure the air samples and then using those values with the raw data (NDIR voltages) to recompute mole fractions for each sample.
Processing Documents
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • Hartmann Braun Uras 2T #101
  • Hartmann Braun Uras 2T #29
  • Siemens Ultramat 5F #508423
  • Siemens Ultramat 5 #W10-080
  • Licor 6251
Platform
  • SPO
Last Modified: 2018-05-25
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