Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2


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            title:  Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2
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                date:  2016-08
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                  Anchor:  DOI doi:10.7289/V5X63K0Q
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                code:  NCEI DSI 6353_01
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                individualName:  Durre, Imke
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        abstract:  Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2 consists of quality-controlled radiosonde observations of temperature, humidity, and wind at stations across all continents. Data are drawn from more than 30 different sources. The earliest year of data is 1905, and the data are updated on a daily basis. Record length, vertical extent and resolution, and availability of variables varies among stations and over time. In addition to the merged and quality-controlled set of soundings, several supplementary products are included: sounding-derived moisture and stability parameters for each suitable sounding; monthly means at mandatory pressure levels; the Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC) in which post-1997 data are based on IGRA 2; and station history information derived from documented changes in instruments and observing practice as well as from instrument codes received along with the sounding data.
        purpose:  The data are intended for use for any application or analysis that requires historical radiosonde observations. Known applications of IGRA one include products of homogenized radiosonde data, air pollution modeling, reanalyses, wind energy research, climate assessments, and many others.
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            useLimitation:  Data have not been adjusted for inhomogeneities due to station relocation, equipment changes, or changes in observing practice. NCEI scientists have applied a comprehensive set of quality control procedures to the data to remove gross errors. However, they did not attempt to remove jumps and other discontinuities caused by changes in instrumentation, observing practice, or station location. Users studying long-term trends may wish to use the NOAA Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC) or one of the available non-NOAA IGRA-derived, homogeneity-adjusted radiosonde datasets.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Durre, Imke; Xungang, Yin; Vose, Russell S.; Applequist, Scott; Arnfield, Jeff. (2016) Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA), Version 2. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. DOI:10.7289/V5X63K0Q [access date].
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Overview of the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2006
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  American Meteorological Society
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (missing)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI3594.1
                            applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                            name:  Overview of the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive
                            description:  Overview of the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive IGRA 1.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (missing)
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Enhanced radiosonde data for studies of vertical structure
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2008
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  American Meteorological Society
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (missing)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: http://www.jstor.org/stable/26220887
                            applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                            name:  Enhanced radiosonde data for studies of vertical structure
                            description:  Durre, I., and X. Yin, 2008: Enhanced radiosonde data for studies of vertical structure. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(9), 1257-1262.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (missing)
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  A DIGITIZED METADATA SET OF GLOBAL UPPER-AIR STATION HISTORIES
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  1996-02
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Environmental Research Laboratories
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (missing)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/images/gaffen1996.pdf
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                            name:  A DIGITIZED METADATA SET OF GLOBAL UPPER-AIR STATION HISTORIES
                            description:  Information on IGRA Metadata
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (missing)
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) userGuide
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  IGRA Station listing
                date: (missing)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (missing)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/igra/igra2-station-list.txt
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                            name:  IGRA Station listing
                            description:  Detailed listing of stations used within IGRA data set.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (missing)
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) userGuide
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) textTable
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
        environmentDescription:  The data were processed under Linux using a variety of Fortran 95 programs and bash scripts. Data sources were organized into a directory structure in which each source subdirectory is named with an eight-character data source code. In a few cases, when data sources of the same format covered mutually exclusive geographical regions, they were combined into what was from then on referred to as a single IGRA 2 data source. The IGRA 2 data SourceCodes are listed in the online documentation in the IGRA FTP directory.
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                extentTypeCode:  1
                westBoundLongitude:  -180.0
                eastBoundLongitude:  180.0
                southBoundLatitude:  -90.0
                northBoundLatitude:  90.0
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    description:  ground condition
                    beginPosition:  1905-01-01
                    endPosition:
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                positionName:  Customer Engagement Branch
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  1-828-271-4800
                        facsimile:  1-828-271-4876
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  151 Patton Avenue
                        deliveryPoint:  Veach-Baley Federal Building, Room 468
                        city:  Asheville
                        administrativeArea:  NC
                        postalCode:  28801-5001
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ncei.orders@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                        name:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
                        description:  NCEI home page with information, data access and contact information.
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    hoursOfService:  8:00 - 6:00 Eastern
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  XML
                version: (missing)
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
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                    linkage: https://doi.org/10.7289/V5X63K0Q
                    applicationProfile:  Landing Page
                    name:  Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2 Landing Page
                    description:  Dataset landing page with general information and access links for the dataset.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                positionName:  Customer Engagement Branch
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  1-828-271-4800
                        facsimile:  1-828-271-4876
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  151 Patton Avenue
                        deliveryPoint:  Veach-Baley Federal Building, Room 468
                        city:  Asheville
                        administrativeArea:  NC
                        postalCode:  28801-5001
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ncei.orders@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                        name:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
                        description:  NCEI home page with information, data access and contact information.
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    hoursOfService:  8:00 - 6:00 Eastern
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  HTML
                version: (missing)
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  1
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/weather-balloon/integrated-global-radiosonde-archive
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Information
                    name:  NOAA website for IGRA
                    description:  Website for more information, documentation and background on this dataset
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                positionName:  Customer Engagement Branch
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  1-828-271-4800
                        facsimile:  1-828-271-4876
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  151 Patton Avenue
                        deliveryPoint:  Veach-Baley Federal Building, Room 468
                        city:  Asheville
                        administrativeArea:  NC
                        postalCode:  28801-5001
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ncei.orders@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                        name:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
                        description:  NCEI home page with information, data access and contact information.
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    hoursOfService:  8:00 - 6:00 Eastern
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  ASCII
                version: (missing)
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize: (missing)
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                    linkage: https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/igra/
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Download
                    name:  NCEI Direct Download
                    description:  Direct download for the IGRA data files.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
            extent:  #boundingExtent
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            statement:  Various data sources contribute to IGRA 2, along with several sources of metadata. The level of knowledge about each individual data source varies depending on the documentation and metadata that were provided along with the data. All data included in IGRA 2 were required to have adequate documentation of their digital format. Only observed values were included; estimated values were not. All stations included in IGRA 2 were required to be identified by either a known station identifier or by a station name, coordinates, and elevation. The data processing applied to the sources in order to create IGRA 2 are described in the Dataset Description Document.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  First, all data sets were formatted into a common data format, duplicate soundings and data levels were removed or combined, and station metadata was collected for as many source stations as possible, and the format of this metadata was standardized across data sources. Then, the standardized source data were integrated into one data set and passed through a sequence of quality control procedures. Finally, some station records were composited with data from very nearby stations with non-overlapping periods of record. Then derived moisture instability parameters are calculated from this step as part of the daily update process to the final IGRA 2 sounding data. Monthly means of geopotential height, temperature, zonal and meridional wind components, and vapor pressure are calculated for the surface and standard pressure levels at 0000 and 1200 UTC. This step is performed on the sixth day of every month for data ending with the previous month.
                rationale:  The data and station metadata need to be in a standard format in preparation for later processing steps. Integration yields a data set with one observation per location, date, and time. Quality control procedures remove gross data problems. Composite step yields longer data records. The derived moisture instability parameters are useful for studies of the planetary boundary layer as well as for analyses of various measures of atmospheric water vapor content and stability. Monthly means are particularly useful for studies of long-term changes.
                dateTime: (missing)
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
                source:  sd001
                source:  sd002
                source:  sd003
                source:  sd004
                source:  sd005
                source:  sd006
                source:  sd007
                source:  sd008
                source:  sd009
                source:  sd010
                source:  sd011
                source:  sd012
                source:  sd013
                source:  sd014
                source:  sd015
                processingInformation:  (LE_Processing)
                    identifier: (missing)
                    documentation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  Enhancements of the Data Set of Sounding Parameters Derived from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date:  2011
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            organisationName:  AMS> American Meteorological Society
                            role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            organisationName: (missing)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://ams.confex.com/ams/91Annual/webprogram/Paper179437.html
                                    protocol:  HTTPS
                                    applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                                    name:  Enhancements of the Data Set of Sounding Parameters Derived from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive
                                    description:  Link to the paper presented at the 91st Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                            role: (missing)
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Radiosonde and pilot balloon data from land stations and Volunteer Observing Ships
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  U.S. Air Force Upper Air Data Set (Ds3 Format)
                    date: (missing)
                    edition:  2009
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  igra 2 source code usaf-ds3
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  U.S. Air Force 14th Weather Squadron
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) resourceProvider
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1973
                            endPosition:  2008
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Radiosonde and pilot balloon observations from land stations and VolunteerObserving Ships
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  NCEI Real-Time NCEP GTS Messages
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  NCEI DSI-6330, IGRA 2 source code ncdc-gts
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  gco:nilReason="missing"/
                            endPosition:
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Pilot balloon observations for the United States digitized by the Climate Data Modernization Program
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  CDMP U.S. Wins Aloft from Monthly Forms and Daily Computation Sheets
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 data SourceCodes cdmp-usm (created from two original data sources from the same types of forms), cdmp-us2, and cdmp-us3
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1918
                            endPosition:  1960
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Radiosonde and pilot balloon observations for Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Tanzania, Zambia, digitized by the Climate Data Modernization Program
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  CDMP African forms
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 data SourceCodes cdmp-adp ( created from five original sources), .cdmp-amr (created from 2 original sources), cdmp-mgr, cdmp-zdm
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1946
                            endPosition:  2004
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Radiosonde and pilot balloon data supplied by National Weather Service, some U.S. military, and U.S.-operated Caribbean stations, as well as, historically, some Canadian sites
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Non-real-time data and monthly packages in NCDC non-real-time transfer format (NWS terminology); NCDC U.S. Rawindsonde Data (NCDC DSI-6301 title)
                    date: (missing)
                    edition:  ongoing
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  NCEI DSI-6212 and DSI-6212 (real-time) and DSI-6301 (final archiv form); IGRA 2 SourceCodes ncdc-nws (real-time) and ncdc6301 (archived)
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NWS > National Weather Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1946
                            endPosition:
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Global Telecommunications System messages received at Roshydromet
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Roshydromet GTS or Russian GTS
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  NCEI DSI-6314; IGRA 2 source codencdc6314
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1998
                            endPosition:  2010
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Historical radiosonde and pilot balloon data with global coverage, obtained from NCAR; humidity from NCAR MIT data not included due to data problems.
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  NCDC "Global U/A Cards" (NCDC DSI-6310); NCAR C-Cards Raob Data; NCAR MIT Upper Air Data (DS 370.0)
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2009
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 data SourceCodes ncar-ccd, ncar-mit
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  UCAR/NCAR > National Center for Atmospheric Research, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1949
                            endPosition:  1966
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Data archived at NCEI (then NCDC) during their early phase of the Comprehensive Aerological Reference Data Set (CARDS) project in so-called TD63 format
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  "Global U/A Cards", "Argentina National", "Korea National", "Australian GTS", "Australian U/A Thermo/Winds Merged", "Brazilian Upper Air", "Global Upper Air Cards"
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  1995
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  NCEI DSI-6310, DSI-6316, DSI-6319, DSI-6322, DSI-6323, DSI-6324, and DSI-6326, corresponding to IGRA 2 now SourceCodes ncdc6310, ncdc6316, ncdc6319, ncdc6322, ncdc6323, ncdc6324, ncdc632 respectively
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1943
                            endPosition:  1993
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Marine and ice island data archived at NCEI
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  "Marine Upper Air" and "Upper Air Russian Ice Island" (v2.0)
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  NCEI DSI-6210 and DSI-6355; IGRA 2 source code ncdc6210 and ncdc6355
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  NCEI
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                            onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                linkage: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0008_hara.gd.html
                                applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                                name:  "Marine Upper Air" and "Upper Air Russian Ice Island" (v2.0)
                                description:  special report
                                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1946
                            endPosition:  1993
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Some stations from the Comprehensive Historical Upper Air Network
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Comprehensive Historical Upper Air Network
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2009
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    edition:  v1.01, .rdc files
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 data source code chuan101
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  -90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1905
                            endPosition:  2007
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Upper-air data, except those for moving ships, digitized for the ERA-CLIM reanalysis project, covering many parts of the world
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  ERA-CLIM Historical Upper Air Data
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2014
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.821222; IGRA 2 source code erac-hud
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  Earth System Science Data
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                            onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                linkage: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.821222
                                applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                                name:  ERA-CLIM Historical Upper Air Data
                                description:  Dataset website
                                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  -90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1909
                            endPosition:  1972
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Radiosonde data from stations located in the artic, except those obtained from NCDC by the data set creator
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Historical Arctic Radiosonde Archive
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 source code ngdc-har
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                            onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                linkage: https://doi.org/10.5067/FQZA3330CVPO
                                applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                                name:  Historical Arctic Radiosonde Archive
                                description:  Dataset Landing Page for source data.
                                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  90
                        southBoundLatitude:  65
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1948
                            endPosition:  1996
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Antarctic data provided by the British Antarctic Survey
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  UK READER Upper Air Data
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2009
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 source code bas-data
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  BritishAntarctic survey
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                            onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                linkage: http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/met/READER/
                                applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                                name:  UK READER Upper Air Data
                                description:  general information about the data
                                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  180
                        eastBoundLongitude:  -54
                        southBoundLatitude:  -90
                        northBoundLatitude:  -90
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1948
                            endPosition:  2008
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Radiosonde and pilot balloon observations for West Africa collected by a joint data rescue project involving Meteo-France, CNRS and ASECNA in the 80's.
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Meteo-France African Temperature-Humidity Soundings and Wins Aloft
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 source code mfwa-ptu and mfwa-wnd
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  Meteo-France
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1940
                            endPosition:  1965
                sourceStep:  ps001
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  Rawinsonde observations collected operationally by the Indonesian Meteorological and GeophysicalAgency (BMG) and acquired by Okamoto et al. (2003)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  IORGC/JAMSTEC Data for Indonesia
                    date: (missing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:  IGRA 2 source code iorgc-id
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  Institute of Observational Research for Global Change (IORGC), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1991
                            endPosition:  1998
                sourceStep:  ps001
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) repository
            levelDescription:  (MD_ScopeDescription)
                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Bulk metadata change applied on 2018-11-05. See version control repository history for metadata change details.