Surface Weather Observations Monthly

EV2 - Surface Weather Observation Forms (1001); Monthly Surface Weather Observation Forms (Images)

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Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form 1001, in use by the US Weather Bureau, and Form 1, in use by the US Army and Navy. NCDC Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP) scanned the vast majority of these forms in order to fill in the observation gap prior to the time when commercial aviation began in the U.S. Many forms contiaining observations taken on foreign soil have not yet been scanned. Observations were recorded two to four times daily beginning as early as 1893 at city Weather Bureau Offices. During the 1930s many of these city stations gradually moved to airport locations.

Through 1936 observations were taken twice daily; then in 1937 the general practice was to record four observations per day. The data elements are as follows: station pressure, sea level pressure, dry and wet bulb temperature, dew point, maximum and minimum temperature, wind direction and speed, precipitation, cloud amount and type, ceiling, state of weather and visibility. It should be noted that not all elements are present for all stations in this dataset, and that ceiling and visibility observations did not begin at the city offices until the 1930's. Official surface weather observation standards can be found in the Circular N manuals. The vast majority of records are available online, but some records are still only available in the physical format only.
Cite this dataset when used as a source.
  • NCEI DSI 3900_01
  • NCEI WebARTIS: SWO (subset)
  • gov.noaa.ncdc:C01105
Download Data
  • EV2 Image Access System (download)
    EV2 Information and Data Access Page. Data can be found in the "Surface Weather Observation Forms (1001)" Library.
Distribution Formats
  • PDF
    • File Specification:
    • File Compression:
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Coverage Description
Time Period 1893 to 1948
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90
S: -90
E: 180
W: -180
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
  • Climate Database Modernization Program
    • CDMP Web site
      Information about the Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) and the current Image Access Repository.
  • Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms (Keyed)
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2011-03-15
  • revision: 2013-05-02
Data Presentation Form Digital image
Hardcopy image - image archived in analog format
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency Irregular
Purpose In the late 1990s NCDC realized the need to host digital images of weather and climate records on the internet. As a result, EV2 was developed as a key system for providing access to the millions of original source data images in the NCDC archives. With its upload and index capability, EV2 also enables the continuation of NCDC's commitment to make more of its weather and climate data available online so that users across the world can view climate and weather records held in the NCDC archives.
Use Limitations
  • Controlled user access to the EV2 system
Cited Authors
  • DOC/NOAA/NWS > National Weather Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOD/USARMY > U.S. Army, U. S. Department of Defense
  • DOD/USNAVY > U.S. Navy, U.S. Department of Defense
Originators
  • DOC/NOAA/NWS > National Weather Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOD/USARMY > U.S. Army, U. S. Department of Defense
  • DOD/USNAVY > U.S. Navy, U.S. Department of Defense
Publishers
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Pressure > Anticyclones/Cyclones
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Pressure > Pressure Anomalies
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Pressure > Sea Level Pressure
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Pressure > Atmospheric Pressure Measurements
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Pressure > Surface Pressure
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Solid Precipitation > Hail
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Amount
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Anomalies
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Rate
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Liquid Precipitation > Rain
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Solid Precipitation > Ice Pellets > Sleet
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Solid Precipitation > Snow
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Winds > Surface Winds
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Surface Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Temperature Anomalies
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Surface Temperature > Air Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Dew Point Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Temperature > Surface Temperature > Maximum/Minimum Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Water Vapor > Water Vapor Indicators > Dew Point Temperature
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Clouds > Cloud Properties > Cloud Frequency
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Clouds > Cloud Properties > Cloud Ceiling
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Clouds > Cloud Types
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Air Quality > Visibility
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Air Temperature
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Precipitation
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Pressure
  • Atmospheric - Surface - Wind Speed And Direction
  • Atmospheric - Upper-air - Cloud Properties
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • Meteorological Stations
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • Thermometers
  • Anemometers
  • Rain Gauges
  • Barometers
  • Visual Observations
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Land Surface
Use Constraints
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • TEMPERATURE SENSORS
  • DRY BULB THERMOMETERS
  • TEMPERATURE LOGGERS
  • WET BULB THERMOMETERS
  • BAROMETERS
  • ALTIMETERS
  • HYGROMETERS
  • VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
  • WIND VANES
  • ANEMOMETERS
  • RAIN GAUGES
Platform
  • WEATHER STATIONS
Last Modified: 2018-11-05
For questions about the information on this page, please email: ncei.orders@noaa.gov