Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Old Flask Gas Chromatograph (GC) Measurements


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            title:  Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Old Flask Gas Chromatograph (GC) Measurements
            alternateTitle:  ESRL GMD HATS Old Flask GC; Pre-Otto
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                date:  2017-11
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                  Anchor:  DOI doi:10.7289/V5959FT5
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        abstract:  The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) group aims to quantify the atmospheric burden, and the distributions and magnitudes of sources and sinks for nitrous oxide and other halogen containing compounds. They utilize numerous types of platforms, including ground-based stations, towers, ships, aircraft, and balloons to accomplish their mission. HATS measures chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at measurement sites spanning the globe. CFCs are non-toxic, non-flammable chemicals that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs were used as solvents, refrigerants, and aerosol sprays. While inert in the troposphere, they decompose in the stratosphere to release chlorine for destructive reactions with ozone. This process eventually led to the creation of the "Ozone Hole" over the Antarctic. Monitoring the amounts of CFCs and other trace gases is important, both for tracking the growth and recovery of the Ozone Hole, and because many upward trending trace gases are potent and durable greenhouse gases. Original flask sampling electron capture gas chromatograph ("Pre-Otto") : Air samples collected in flasks at five remote sites, including Barrow, AK (BRW), Mauna Loa, HI (MLO), American Samoa (SMO), South Pole (SPO), Antarctica, and Niwot Ridge, CO (NWR), were analyzed using the HATS group's original electron capture gas chromatograph (GC-ECD) system beginning in 1977. Two additional sites at Alert, Nunavut, Canada (ALT), and Cape Grim, Tasmania (CGO) were added prior to the original Pre-Otto system's retirement in 1995, when it was replaced by a newer, automated system called "Otto". This program was originally set up under the Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) division of NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory. Air was collected weekly at these sites in stainless-steel flasks and analyzed for nitrous oxide (N2O), and the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) in the Boulder labs in Colorado. Through the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI), ESRL/GMD has taken their data collection and converted files into NetCDF-4, a self-describing format.
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                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                edition:  Version 8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) dataCentre
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                edition:  Version 8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES
            keyword:  GREENHOUSE GASES
            keyword:  MONTREAL PROTOCOL
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Keyword Thesaurus Title
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  Keyword Thesaurus Edition
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Keyword Thesaurus Publisher
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://geo-ide.noaa.gov/wiki/index.php?title=MD_Keywords
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                            name:  NOAA Environmental Data Management Wiki: MD Keywords
                            description:  Instructions and examples for ISO keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Elkins, James W.; Dutton, Geoff; Nance, David; Bradley Hall; and NOAA ESRL (2017): Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Old Flask Gas Chromatograph (GC) Measurements, Version 1. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5959FT5 [access date].
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  The information contained herein is provided as a public service, with the understanding that the NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Divison makes no warranties, either expressed or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or suitability of the information. If you use this data in a publication or report, we would appreciate that you contact the principal investigators (PIs) first and discuss your interests. The PIs can discuss the quality of the data and any potential problems with its analysis. The data should be cited in presentations or publications along the following lines: %s data from the NOAA/ESRL/GMD halocarbons flask program.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
        environmentDescription:  The GC equipment used to analyze air samples dated to the mid-1970s. A combination of a commercial electronic integrator and manual assessments from hard copy chart traces was used to evaluate chromatographic peak responses. Peak response measures were manually entered into electronic data files for a further reduction in atmospheric mixing ratios. From this point, a series of mostly 1980s and 1990s vintage workstation/desktop scale computers were used to process and reprocess the peak response measures into mixing ratios using a collection of custom developed FORTRAN routines.
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                extentTypeCode:  1
                westBoundLongitude:  -180.0
                eastBoundLongitude:  180.0
                southBoundLatitude:  -90.0
                northBoundLatitude:  90.0
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    description:  ground condition
                    beginPosition:  1977-01-15
                    endPosition:  1995-12-15
                    timeInterval:  1
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                positionName:  Customer Engagement Branch
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  1-828-271-4800
                        facsimile:  1-828-271-4876
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  151 Patton Avenue
                        deliveryPoint:  Veach-Baley Federal Building, Room 468
                        city:  Asheville
                        administrativeArea:  NC
                        postalCode:  28801-5001
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ncei.orders@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                        name:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
                        description:  NCEI home page with information, data access and contact information.
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                    hoursOfService:  8:00 - 6:00 Eastern
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  1
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://doi.org/10.7289/V5959FT5
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Description
                    name:  Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Old Flask Gas Chromatograph (GC) Measurements Landing Page
                    description:  Dataset landing page with general information and access links for the dataset.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone: (missing)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                        deliveryPoint:  DSRC, Bldg 33 Recipent Room
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  280305-3328
                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  netCDF-4
                version: (missing)
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize: (missing)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats
                    applicationProfile:  Download
                    name:  ESRL Direct Download
                    description:  Direct download for data.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone: (missing)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                        deliveryPoint:  DSRC, Bldg 33 Recipent Room
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  280305-3328
                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  HTML
                version: (missing)
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize: (missing)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/flask/flasks.html
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Information
                    name:  ESRL/GMD HATS Group Website
                    description:  Project page with dataset information.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
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        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
            extent:  #boundingExtent
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            statement:  Air samples were collected in flasks at field sites and transported to NOAA/ESRL/GMD in Boulder, Colorado for analysis by electron capture gas chromatograph (GC-ECD). Data reduction was conducted on a desktop computer.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Each sample injection was performed manually, and the resulting chromatograms were analyzed by a combination of a commercial electronic integrator and manual techniques. Groupings of air sample injections were interspersed with groupings of reference gas injections, and sample mixing ratios were determined by comparing these responses within the framework of an assumed linear response function through a single reference point and zero. Normalized responses with ancillary information were then manually entered into electronic data files for further processing by FORTRAN coded computer algorithms. Corrections for sample humidity, co-eluting peak response biases (e.g. CO2), and reassessments of the reference gas value were applied downstream in this manner. Quality control measures were used along the entire chain.
                dateTime: (missing)
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
                source:  sd001
                processingInformation:  (LE_Processing)
                    identifier: (missing)
                    documentation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change No. 14 Summary Report 1985
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date:  1986-12
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        edition:  14
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                            role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            organisationName: (missing)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/hats/doc/SummaryReport14_1985_GMCC-HalocarbonsSection.pdf
                                    applicationProfile:  Web Browser
                                    name:  Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change No. 14 Summary Report 1985
                                    description:  Trace Gases Group Continuing Programs
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                            role: (missing)
            source:  (LE_Source)
                description:  ESRL GMD HATS Old Flask Gas Chromatograph Measurements
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Old Flask Gas Chromatograph (GC) Measurements
                    date: (missing)
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (missing)
                        role: (missing)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                        extentTypeCode:  1
                        westBoundLongitude:  -180.0
                        eastBoundLongitude:  180.0
                        southBoundLatitude:  -90.0
                        northBoundLatitude:  90.0
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            beginPosition:  1977-01-15
                            endPosition:  1995-12-15
                sourceStep:  ps001
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) repository
            levelDescription:  (MD_ScopeDescription)
                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Bulk metadata change applied on 2018-11-05. See version control repository history for metadata change details.