Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Otto Instrument Measurements

ESRL GMD HATS Otto Instrument

browse graphicOtto Gas Chromatograph Instrument
The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) group aims to quantify the atmospheric burden, and the distributions and magnitudes of sources and sinks for nitrous oxide and other halogen containing compounds. They utilize numerous types of platforms, including ground-based stations, towers, ships, aircraft, and balloons to accomplish their mission. HATS measures chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at measurement sites spanning the globe. CFCs are non-toxic, non-flammable chemicals that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs were used as solvents, refrigerants, and aerosol sprays. While inert in the troposphere, they decompose in the stratosphere to release chlorine for destructive reactions with ozone. This process eventually led to the creation of the "Ozone Hole" over the Antarctic. Monitoring the amounts of CFCs and other trace gases is important, both for tracking the growth and recovery of the Ozone Hole, and because many upward trending trace gases are potent and durable greenhouse gases.

Automated flask sampling electron capture gas chromatograph ("Otto"): The Otto instrument has been in continuous use since late 1994 when the original Pre-Otto system was entering retirement. Since 1994, Otto has continued to analyze samples from the seven sites used by the Pre-Otto system. As of 2017, Otto's sampling network has expanded to include weekly air sampling at six additional sites including Summit Station, Greenland (SUM), Mace Head, Ireland (MHD), Park Falls, Wisconsin (LEF), Harvard Forest, Massachusetts (HFM), Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii (KUM), and Palmer Station, Antarctica (PSA). Sampling at Trinidad Head, California (THD), Grifton, North Carolina (ITN), and Ushuaia, Argentina (USH) has also come and gone during this period. The original three gases measured by GC-ECD since 1977 (N2O, CFC-12 and CFC-11) were extended to include CFC-113, CH3CCl3, CCl4 and SF6 when Otto came online.

Through the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI), ESRL/GMD has taken their data collection and converted files into NetCDF-4, a self-describing format.
  • Cite as: Dutton, Geoff; Nance, David; Hall, Bradley; and NOAA ESRL (2017): Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Otto Instrument Measurements, Version 1. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V55D8Q3V [access date].
  • Please refer to Credit tab for full citation information.
Download Data
Distribution Formats
  • netCDF-4
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact David Nance
CIRES Associate Scientist
DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
(303) 497-7002
david.nance@noaa.gov
Time Period 1994-11-15 to Present (time interval: 7-day)
Spatial Reference System urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Processing Documents
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2017-11
  • creation: 1994-11-15
Edition Version 1
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Ongoing - data is continually being updated
Data Update Frequency Annually
Purpose The general mission of the Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species group is to quantify the distributions and magnitudes of sources and sinks for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) and halogen containing compounds.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Dutton, Geoff; Nance, David; Hall, Bradley; and NOAA ESRL (2017): Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Otto Instrument Measurements, Version 1. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V55D8Q3V [access date].
  • The information contained herein is provided as a public service, with the understanding that the NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Divison makes no warranties, either expressed or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or suitability of the information. If you use this data in a publication or report, we would appreciate that you contact the principal investigators (PIs) first and discuss your interests. The PIs can discuss the quality of the data and any potential problems with its analysis. The data should be cited in presentations or publications along the following lines: %s data from the NOAA/ESRL/GMD halocarbons flask program.
Cited Authors
  • David Nance
    DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Geoffrey Dutton
    DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Bradley Hall
    DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Principal Investigators
  • David Nance
    DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborators
  • Geoffrey Dutton
    DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Bradley Hall
    DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Publishers
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Chemistry > Nitrogen Compounds > Nitrous Oxide
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Chemistry > Halocarbons And Halogens > Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Earth Science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Chemistry > Halocarbons And Halogens > Carbon Tetrachloride
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon Dioxide, Methane and other Greenhouse Gases (including N2O, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, SF6 and PFCs)
Keyword Thesaurus Title
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > HALOCARBONS AND HALOGENS > METHYL CHLOROFORM
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > SULFUR COMPOUNDS > SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE
  • OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES
  • GREENHOUSE GASES
  • MONTREAL PROTOCOL
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • AIR MONITORING STATIONS/NETWORKS
  • ESRL STATIONS > NOAA Earth Science Research Laboratory Stations
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America > Alaska
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America > Hawaii
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America > Colorado
  • Ocean > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > American Samoa
  • Continent > Antarctica
  • Continent > North America > Canada > Nunavut
  • Continent > Australia/New Zealand > Australia
  • Continent > North America > Greenland
  • Continent > Europe > Northern Europe > British Isles > Ireland
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America > Wisconsin
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America > Massachusetts
  • Continent > North America > United States Of America > California
  • Continent > Asia > Western Asia > Middle East > Israel
  • Continent > Asia > Eastern Asia > China
Project keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • ESRL > Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA)
Data Resolution keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Horizontal Data Resolution Keywords
  • Point Resolution
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Vertical Data Resolution Keywords
  • Point Resolution
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Land Surface
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Dutton, Geoff; Nance, David; Hall, Bradley; and NOAA ESRL (2017): Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Otto Instrument Measurements, Version 1. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V55D8Q3V [access date].
  • The information contained herein is provided as a public service, with the understanding that the NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Divison makes no warranties, either expressed or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or suitability of the information. If you use this data in a publication or report, we would appreciate that you contact the principal investigators (PIs) first and discuss your interests. The PIs can discuss the quality of the data and any potential problems with its analysis. The data should be cited in presentations or publications along the following lines: %s data from the NOAA/ESRL/GMD halocarbons flask program.
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement Air samples were collected in flasks at field sites and transported to NOAA/ESRL/GMD in Boulder, Colorado for analysis by electron capture gas chromatograph (GC-ECD). Data reduction was conducted on a desktop computer.
Processor
  • DOC/NOAA/ESRL/GMD > Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Processing Steps
  • Multiple flask samples are connected to a sampling manifold to set up a run that sequentially draws and injects samples onto the GC. Each air sample is alternated with injections from two reference gases, and the output signal from the ECD is transferred into HP ChemStation software for recording and analysis. Analyzed peak response measures from ChemStation, along with other information about each sample injection, are recorded into a Microsoft Access database file. Originally, these data were accessed and reduced to atmospheric mixing ratios using calibration curves determined from nearby (in time) responses to two reference gases, one at near background mixing ratios and the other diluted with "zero air" to ~90% of background. Each calibration curve was a line drawn through the two reference points. An updated processing method was developed and implemented in 2008 that uses reference gas response ratios accumulated throughout Otto's 20+ year history to assess and compensate for any nonlinear response characteristics and reference-dependent response biases. Quality control measures are in place at many points along the reduction path.
Processing Environment The GC equipment used to analyze air samples dates to around 1990. Custom developed control software was written in early 1990s vintage Microsoft Visual Basic. Hewlett Packard ChemStation software dating to the mid-1990s is used to evaluate chromatographic peak responses. These measures are stored in a mid-1990s vintage Microsoft Access database file. From this point, a series of workstation/desktop scale computers dating from the early 1990s to the mid-2010s has been used to process and reprocess peak response measures into mixing ratios using a collection of custom developed routines coded in MS Visual Basic, IDL, and Python.
Processing Documents
Source Datasets
  • Earth System Research Laboratory Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Gases Otto Instrument Measurements
    • Description of Source: ESRL GMD HATS OTTO Instrument Measurements
    • Temporal extent used: 1994-11-15 to Present
    • Spatial extent used: N:90.0 S:-90.0 E:180.0 W:-180.0
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Last Modified: 2018-11-05
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