NOAA 0.25-degree Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST), Version 2.1

Sea Surface Temperature - Optimum Interpolation

browse graphicSea Surface Temperature image
This high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis product was developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The OISST analysis has a spatial grid resolution of 0.25 degree and temporal resolution of 1 day, spanning from September 1981 to present. The analysis was constructed by combining observations from different platforms on a regular global grid, including Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data, ships, buoys and Argo floats. A spatially complete SST map was produced by interpolating to fill in spatial gaps. The methodology includes bias adjustment of satellite and ship observations (referenced to buoys) to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases. This proved critical during the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991, when the widespread presence of volcanic aerosols resulted in infrared satellite temperatures that were much cooler than actual ocean temperatures, and other degradation of satellite observations. Released in March 2020, Version 2.1 supersedes the previous Version 2. For the January 2016 to present time period, changes include: 1) In-Situ ship and buoy data changed from the NCEP Traditional Alphanumeric Codes (TAC) to the NCEI merged TAC + Binary Universal Form for the Representation (BUFR) data; 2) Addition of Argo float observed SST data; 3) Satellite input changed from METOP-A and NOAA-19 to METOP-A and METOP-B; 4) Revised ship-buoy SST corrections and revised sea-ice-concentration to SST conversion. The data before January 1, 2016 remain the same as Version 2.0. Preliminary product files are produced daily in near real-time (1-day latency) and can be updated in the first few days if critical input data become available after the initial production time. After two weeks, a complete or final product is generated and archived with no additional changes expected. The product is available in netCDF-4 with metadata attributes.
  • Cite as: Huang, Boyin; Liu, Chunying; Banzon, Viva F.; Freeman, Eric; Graham, Garrett; Hankins, Bill; Smith, Thomas M.; Zhang, Huai-Min. (2020): NOAA 0.25-degree Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST), Version 2.1. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. https://doi.org/10.25921/RE9P-PT57. Accessed [date].
Download Data
Distribution Formats
  • NetCDF (Version: 4)
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
+1 (828) 271-4800
oisst_contacts@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact OISST Product Team
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
oisst-help@noaa.gov
Time Period 1981-09-01 to Present (time interval: 1-day)
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
  • Improved Estimation of Proxy Sea Surface Temperature in the Arctic
  • GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2) from NCEI (GDS versions 1 and 2)
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2020-03-20
Edition Version 2.1
Data Presentation Form Digital image
Dataset Progress Status Ongoing - data is continually being updated
Data Update Frequency Daily
Purpose The NOAA Daily 0.25 degree Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) provides complete ocean temperature fields constructed by combining bias-adjusted observations from different platforms (satellite, ships, buoys) on a regular global grid, with gaps filled in by interpolation. Applications include climate and oceanographic research, marine environmental and coastal applications including marine ecosystems and fisheries.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Huang, Boyin; Liu, Chunying; Banzon, Viva F.; Freeman, Eric; Graham, Garrett; Hankins, Bill; Smith, Thomas M.; Zhang, Huai-Min. (2020): NOAA 0.25-degree Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST), Version 2.1. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. https://doi.org/10.25921/RE9P-PT57. Accessed [date].
Cited Authors
  • Huang, Boyin
  • Liu, Chunying
  • Banzon, Viva F.
  • Freeman, Eric
  • Graham, Garrett
  • Hankins, Bill
  • Smith, Thomas M.
  • Zhang, Huai-Min
Principal Investigators
  • Huang, Boyin
  • Smith, Thomas M.
Contributors
  • Liu, Chunying
  • Banzon, Viva F.
  • Freeman, Eric
  • Graham, Garrett
  • Hankins, Bill
  • Zhang, Huai-Min
Publishers
  • NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
  • Earth Science > Climate Indicators > Atmospheric/Ocean Indicators > Sea Surface Temperature
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)
  • Oceanic - Surface - Sea-surface Temperature
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • AVHRR > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Geographic Region > Global Ocean
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • Vertical Location > Sea Surface
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Huang, Boyin; Liu, Chunying; Banzon, Viva F.; Freeman, Eric; Graham, Garrett; Hankins, Bill; Smith, Thomas M.; Zhang, Huai-Min. (2020): NOAA 0.25-degree Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST), Version 2.1. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. https://doi.org/10.25921/RE9P-PT57. Accessed [date].
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Access Constraints
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement This dataset was produced by and is archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).
Processor
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Processing Steps
  • Data from in-situ observations (ships, buoys and Argo floats) and satellite AVHRSS observations are quality controlled, bias corrected, and then blended together on global 0.25 x 0.25 degree global grid using Optimum Interpolation.
Source Datasets
  • Navy AVHRR Multi-Channel SST (MCSST)
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 2007-01-01 to Present
  • NOAA AVHRR Pathfinder SST (PFSST)
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 1981-08-24 to 2006-12-31
  • Argo float observed SST data
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 2016-01-01 to Present
  • International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Dataset (ICOADS), Version 2.4
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 1981-09-01 to 2006-12-31
  • International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Dataset (ICOADS), Version 3.0.2
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 2016-01-01 to Present
  • Global Telecommunications System (GTS) SST observations from ships and buoys (moored and drifting)
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 2007-01-01 to 2015-12-31
  • NASA GSFC Sea Ice Concentration
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 1981-09-01 to 2004-12-31
  • NOAA NCEP 1/2 Degree Grid Sea Ice Concentration
    • Description of Source:
    • Temporal extent used: 2005-01-01 to Present
  • Land/Sea Mask
    • Description of Source:
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Last Modified: 2020-04-16
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