4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 5-day Data for 1998 (NCEI Accession 0001776)


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            title:  4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 5-day Data for 1998 (NCEI Accession 0001776)
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        abstract:  This accession contains a sea surface temperature (SST) dataset temporally averaged using 5-day data, and in addition includes 5-day cloud-screened full-resolution data, 5-day cloud-screened one-degree binned data, and 5-day cloud-screened gap-filled full-resolution data products for 1998. The included collection of value-added, cloud-screened products in HDF4 were developed from original AVHRR Pathfinder files archived at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). These cloud-screened products contain daytime, nighttime, and day-night averaged data of quality flags 4-7, as well as standard deviation and pixel count information. The data and associated data products were produced as part of the 4 km Pathfinder SST project. The 4 km Pathfinder effort at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI, formerly NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) is an extension of, and improvement on, the sea surface temperature (SST) fields from the NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans 9km Pathfinder dataset. In the 4 km Pathfinder project, some important shortcomings in the original 9 km data were corrected, and the entire time series was reprocessed at the 4 km Global Area Coverage (GAC) level, the highest resolution possible globally. Twice-daily SST and related parameters back to late 1981 have been produced, as well as temporal averages for 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly periods. Data and data products for all other years and time periods are available as separate NCEI accessions. The purpose of the NCEI Pathfinder data is to provide sea surface temperature data and related parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy and spatial resolution, and for archive and distribution through NCEI. This SST data set is intended primarily for climate related applications and studies and is being established to help form the basis for a Climate Data Record for SST.
        purpose:  This dataset is available to the public for a wide variety of uses including scientific research and analysis.
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            keyword:  AVHRR-2 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2
            keyword:  AVHRR-3 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
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                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
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                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
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            keyword:  NOAA-11 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11
            keyword:  NOAA-14 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
            keyword:  NOAA-16 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
            keyword:  NOAA-9 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-9
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) platform
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                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
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                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
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            keyword:
              Anchor:  http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/C17/current/3101/ 3101
            keyword:
              Anchor:  http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/C17/current/3277/ 3277
            keyword:
              Anchor:  http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/C17/current/33J9/ 33J9
            keyword:
              Anchor:  http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/C17/current/33OO/ 33OO
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                title:  SeaDataNet Ship and Platform Codes
                date: (inapplicable)
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            keyword:  GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL OCEAN
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
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                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
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                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
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            useLimitation:  accessLevel: Public
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Casey, Kenneth; US DOC/NOAA/NESDIS > National Oceanographic Data Center (2010). 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 5-day Data for 1998 (NCEI Accession 0001776). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0001776. Accessed [date].
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useLimitation:  Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
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            otherConstraints:  Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
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                title:  AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0, interim version 5.0, and version 5.1 global 4km sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1981-2009
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2010-12-13
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                        title:  NCEI
                        date: (inapplicable)
                    code:  gov.noaa.nodc:AVHRR_Pathfinder-NODC-v5.0_v5.1
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                            linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/AVHRR_Pathfinder-NODC-v5.0_v5.1
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  NCEI Collection
                            description:  Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
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                    organisationName:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) collection
        language:
          LanguageCode:  eng
        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) environment
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180
                eastBoundLongitude:  180
                southBoundLatitude:  -90
                northBoundLatitude:  90
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1998-01-01
                    endPosition:  1998-12-31
        supplementalInformation:  The Version 5.0 Pathfinder algorithm was used to produce these twice-daily, 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly global SST and related parameters (described below). This algorithm is an improved version of the previously most successful of many methods used to derive SST from AVHRR observations (see Barton (1995) for a review of earlier techniques), the University of Miami Pathfinder version v4.2 SST algorithm (described fully in Kilpatrick et al., 2001). The v4.2 algorithm offered marked improvement over operational retrieval algorithms such as MCSST and was applied to AVHRR data to maximize accuracy and to minimize artificial fluctuations arising from the sequence of AVHRR instruments flown on NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites during the past 2 decades. The 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder SSTs have already been shown to be the highest quality product currently available for the construction of global climatologies (Casey and Cornillon, 1999) and longer-term SST trend determination (Casey and Cornillon, 2001), and have been demonstrated to be accurate within about 0.3 degrees C under optimal conditions (Kearns et al., 2000). Relative to the older 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder data, the new, ~ 4 km resolution Pathfinder Version 5.0 global SSTs increase detail roughly by a factor of four simply by virtue of the increased resolution. The increase in detail over widely used but relatively coarse SST datasets such as Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2; Reynolds et al., 2002) and the Hadley Centre's Global Sea Ice and SST (HadISST1; Rayner et al., 2003) is far greater. In addition to the increased resolution, significant improvements have been made in the Version 5.0 which enhance the usefulness of the SST fields. Currently, these enhancements include the use of sea ice in the quality level determination scheme, inclusion of many inland water bodies, and the use of a greatly improved land mask. The greatest improvements are seen in coastal zones, marginal seas, and boundary current regions where SST gradients are often large and their impact on operational or research products is greatest. Separate SST products for daytime and nighttime AVHRR retrievals are made to better understand the differences in skin and bulk temperatures, since mean differences between AVHRR-measured skin temperatures and bulk temperatures of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees C (Schluessel et al., 1990) and locally varying differences of up to 1.8 degrees C (Minnett et al., 2000) have been observed. In addition to SST values, the Pathfinder V5.0 Project makes six other parameters available, for a total of seven per time step: 1. "All-pixel" SST - The all-pixel SST files contain values for each pixel location, including those contaminated with clouds or other sources of error. The Overall Quality Flag values may be used to filter out these unwanted values. The SST value in each pixel location is an average of the highest quality AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) observations available in each roughly 4 km bin. 2. First-guess SST - The Pathfinder algorithm uses a first guess SST provided by the Reynolds Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2) product. The OISSTv2 is also used in the quality control procedures. 3. Number of observations - This parameter indicates the number of AVHRR GAC observations falling in each approximately 4 km bin. 4. Standard deviation - This is the standard deviation of the observations in each 4 km bin. 5. Overall quality flag - The overall quality flag is a relative assignment of SST quality based on a hierarchical suite of tests. The Quality Flag varies from 0 to 7, with 0 being the lowest quality and 7 the highest. For more information regarding the suite of tests, see the Kilpatrick et al. (2001) paper cited above. 6. Mask 1 - These files contain a mask code, which along with Mask 2, can be used to determine the tests in the hierarchical suite that were passed or failed, resulting in the Overall Quality Flag. 7. Mask 2 - These files contain a mask code, which along with Mask 1, can be used to determine the tests in the hierarchical suite that were passed or failed, resulting in the Overall Quality Flag. This accession also includes a collection of value-added, cloud-screened products in HDF4. These products contain daytime, nighttime, and day-night averaged data of quality flags 4-7 only, as well as standard deviation and pixel count information. They have been produced from the original Pathfinder Version 5 data by NODC for Daily, 5-day, 7-day, and monthly temporal averages at 4km and one degree spatial resolution, as well as five degree spatial resolution for monthly products. Note on Pathfinder Program: The Pathfinder program was jointly created by NASA and NOAA through the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program Office in 1990. The focus of the Pathfinder Program was to determine how existing satellite based data sets could be processed and used to study global change. The data sets were designed to be long time-series data processed with stable calibration and community consensus algorithms to better assist the research community. For more information, see: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 1993. Earth Observing System (EOS) Reference Handbook, ed. G. Asrar and D. J. Dokken. Washington, D. C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Earth Science Support Office, Document Resource Facility. The 4 km Pathfinder Project effort at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) is an extension of and improvement on the sea surface temperature (SST) fields from that original NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder program. In this accession, NCEI has archived multiple versions of these data. The latest (and best) version of these data has the largest version number.
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/1730 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  301-713-3277
                        facsimile:  301-713-3300
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  Federal Building 151 Patton Avenue
                        city:  Asheville
                        administrativeArea:  NC
                        postalCode:  28801-5001
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free. However, fees may apply for custom orders, data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
                orderingInstructions:  Contact NCEI for other distribution options and instructions.
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0001776
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/oas/1776
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                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
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                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
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                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
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                    protocol:  FTP
                    applicationProfile:  Any FTP client
                    name:  FTP
                    description:  These data are available through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). You may use any FTP client to download these data.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v1.1 was published.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2010-12-13T22:16:40Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v1.1
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                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
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                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0001776/1.1
                                    protocol:  HTTP
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v1.1
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v1.1
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0001776 was revised and v2.2 was published.
                rationale:  Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2010-12-22T03:17:10Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
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                        title:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v2.2
                        date:  (CI_Date)
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                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                            individualName: (inapplicable)
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                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0001776/2.2
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                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v2.2
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v2.2
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0001776 was revised and v3.3 was published.
                rationale:  Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2018-08-26T19:41:07Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v3.3
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0001776/3.3
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                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v3.3
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0001776 v3.3
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        maintenanceNote:  NCEI Accession 0001776 was revised and a new version of the archival package was published. Updates to existing archival packages may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. The latest version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession. Please see journal.txt in the /about directory for additional details on changes made.
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            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-2
            type:  AVHRR-2
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2 The AVHRR-2 is a multi purpose imaging instrument used for global measurement of cloud cover, sea surface temperature, ice, snow and vegetation cover and characteristics. This instrument was initially carried on NOAA-7 (launched June 1981) and was last flown on NOAA-14 which was decommissioned in 2005. This 5-channel radiometer covering 2 visible and 3 thermal infrared between 0.63 and 12.0 micrometers, has an instantaneous footprint of 1.1 km at the sub satellite point. Additional Information: https://nwpsaf.eu/deliverables/aapp/avhrr_2.html
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-3
            type:  AVHRR-3
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3 The AVHRR-3 is a six channel scanning radiometer providing 3 solar channels in the visible-near infrared region and 3 thermal infrared channels. The AVHRR-3 has two one-micrometer wide channels between 10.3 and 12.5 micrometers. This latest version of AVHRR was first carried on NOAA-15 launched in May 1998 and subsequently in all current NOAA and MetOp platforms. Measuring the same view, this array of diverse wavelengths, after processing, permits multi spectral analysis for more precisely defining hydrologic, oceanographic, and meteorological parameters. Comparison of data from two channels is often used to observe features or measure various environmental parameters. The three channels operating entirely within the infrared band are used to detect the heat radiation from and hence, the temperature of land, water, sea surfaces, and the clouds above them. Additional Information: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pod-guide/ncdc/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-1.htm
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            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-11
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/333 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-14
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/336 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-16
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-16 from United States. Name NOAA-16 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2000 Decommissioned Date 2014 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched September 2000. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information Source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/338 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-9
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-9 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-9 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08. Commissioned Date 1984-12-12 Decommissioned Date 1998-02-13 Notes Selected global operational meteorology data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Atmospheric chemistry and Space weather. All known Instruments flying on NOAA-9 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 ERBE - Earth Radiation Budget Experiment HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit S&RSAT - Search & Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking System SBUV/2 - Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet / 2 SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/331 Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument: (missing)