4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Data for 1986 (NODC Accession 0001849)

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  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth; US DOC/NOAA/NESDIS > National Oceanographic Data Center (2010). 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Data for 1986 (NODC Accession 0001849). Version 1.1. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0001849
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Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Information Services
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 1986-01-01 to 1986-12-31
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90
S: -90
E: 180
W: -180
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
  • AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0, interim version 5.0, and version 5.1 global 4km sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1981-2009
    • NCEI Collection
      Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
  • Parent ID (indicates this is related to other data):
    • gov.noaa.nodc:AVHRR_Pathfinder-NODC-v5.0_v5.1
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2010-12-15
Edition 1.1
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
The Version 5.0 Pathfinder algorithm was used to
produce these twice-daily, 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly global SST and related
parameters (described below). This algorithm is an improved version of the previously most
successful of many methods used to derive SST from AVHRR observations (see Barton (1995)
for a review of earlier techniques), the University of Miami Pathfinder version v4.2 SST
algorithm (described fully in Kilpatrick et al., 2001).

The v4.2 algorithm offered marked improvement over operational retrieval
algorithms such as MCSST and was applied to AVHRR data to maximize accuracy and to
minimize artificial fluctuations arising from the sequence of AVHRR instruments flown on
NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites during the past 2 decades. The 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder SSTs have
already been shown to be the highest quality product currently available for the construction of
global climatologies (Casey and Cornillon, 1999) and longer-term SST trend determination
(Casey and Cornillon, 2001), and have been demonstrated to be accurate within about 0.3
degrees C under optimal conditions (Kearns et al., 2000). Relative to the older 9 km v4.2
Pathfinder data, the new, ~ 4 km resolution Pathfinder Version 5.0 global SSTs increase detail
roughly by a factor of four simply by virtue of the increased resolution. The increase in detail
over widely used but relatively coarse SST datasets such as Optimally Interpolated SST Version
2 (OISSTv2; Reynolds et al., 2002) and the Hadley Centre's Global Sea Ice and SST (HadISST1;
Rayner et al., 2003) is far greater.

In addition to the increased resolution, significant improvements have
been made in the Version 5.0 which enhance the usefulness of the SST fields. Currently, these
enhancements include the use of sea ice in the quality level determination scheme, inclusion of
many inland water bodies, and the use of a greatly improved land mask. The greatest
improvements are seen in coastal zones, marginal seas, and boundary current regions where SST
gradients are often large and their impact on operational or research products is greatest.
Separate SST products for daytime and nighttime AVHRR retrievals are made to better
understand the differences in skin and bulk temperatures, since mean differences between
AVHRR-measured skin temperatures and bulk temperatures of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees C (Schluessel
et al., 1990) and locally varying differences of up to 1.8 degrees C (Minnett et al., 2000) have
been observed.

In addition to SST values, the Pathfinder V5.0 Project makes six other
parameters available, for a total of seven per time step:
1. "All-pixel" SST - The all-pixel SST files contain values for each pixel
location, including those contaminated with clouds or other sources of error. The Overall Quality
Flag values may be used to filter out these unwanted values. The SST value in each pixel
location is an average of the highest quality AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) observations
available in each roughly 4 km bin.
2. First-guess SST - The Pathfinder algorithm uses a first guess SST
provided by the Reynolds Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2) product. The
OISSTv2 is also used in the quality control procedures.
3. Number of observations - This parameter indicates the number of
AVHRR GAC observations falling in each approximately 4 km bin.
4. Standard deviation - This is the standard deviation of the observations in
each 4 km bin.
5. Overall quality flag - The overall quality flag is a relative assignment of
SST quality based on a hierarchical suite of tests. The Quality Flag varies from 0 to 7, with 0
being the lowest quality and 7 the highest. For more information regarding the suite of tests, see
the Kilpatrick et al. (2001) paper cited above.
6. Mask 1 - These files contain a mask code, which along with Mask 2,
can be used to determine the tests in the hierarchical suite that were passed or failed, resulting in
the Overall Quality Flag.
7. Mask 2 - These files contain a mask code, which along with Mask 1,
can be used to determine the tests in the hierarchical suite that were passed or failed, resulting in
the Overall Quality Flag.

Note on Pathfinder Program: The Pathfinder program was jointly created
by NASA and NOAA through the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program Office in 1990. The
focus of the Pathfinder Program was to determine how existing satellite based data sets could be
processed and used to study global change. The data sets were designed to be long time-series
data processed with stable calibration and community consensus algorithms to better assist the
research community. For more information, see: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA). 1993. Earth Observing System (EOS) Reference Handbook, ed. G. Asrar and D. J.
Dokken. Washington, D. C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Earth Science
Support Office, Document Resource Facility. The 4 km Pathfinder Project effort at the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center
(NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
(RSMAS) is an extension of and improvement on the sea surface temperature (SST) fields from
that original NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder program.
Purpose Basic research
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • NOAA-11 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11
  • NOAA-14 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
  • NOAA-16 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
  • NOAA-9 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-9
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • AVHRR-2 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2
  • AVHRR-3 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL OCEAN
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • NOAA/NASA PATHFINDER > NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Program
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth; US DOC/NOAA/NESDIS > National Oceanographic Data Center (2010). 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Data for 1986 (NODC Accession 0001849). Version 1.1. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
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Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2010-12-15T19:54:39 - NCEI Accession 0001849 v1.1 was published.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • AVHRR-2
  • AVHRR-3
Platform
  • NOAA-11
  • NOAA-14
  • NOAA-16
  • NOAA-9
Last Modified: 2018-08-08T21:57:08
For questions about the information on this page, please email: NODC.DataOfficer@noaa.gov