AVHRR Pathfinder version 5 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal and annual day-night climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888)

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This accession contains a set of sea surface temperature climatologies for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 global 4km sea surface temperature data set. These GOM climatologies were produced from 5-day cloud-screened day-night averages of Pathfinder SST data from 1982-2009, which are archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center under separate accession numbers. In addition to sea surface temperature, the climatologies also include minimum, maximum, standard deviation, and number of observations.

The climatologies are available as 32-bit Tagged Image File Format (.TIFF) data files for 1982-2009 and include seasonal and yearly time periods. The climatologies are also included as Arc Grid (.mxd) and .PNG layers with associated legends for user convenience and were assigned projection GCS_WGS_1984. An additional subdirectory contains the annual mean, season 1 (Jan-Mar) mean, season 2 (Apr -June) mean, season 3 (Jul - Sept) mean, and season 4 (Oct-Dec) mean as color-classified .PNG images with a matching shape file that we developed for use in online visualizations.

A separate GOM land mask which will also display inland water bodies has been included with this accession. The land mask was developed from the Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline Database v2.2.0 product (Wessel and Smith, 2011). The user should note that although quality flags were assigned consistently for all water pixels, SSTs for inland water bodies (lakes and rivers) should be used with caution, as their accuracy has not been documented and there are numerous complexities involved with determining surface temperatures in inland regions.
  • Cite as: Li, Yuanjie; US DOC/NOAA/NESDIS > National Oceanographic Data Center (2011). AVHRR Pathfinder version 5 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal and annual day-night climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888). Version 3.3. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0072888
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Distribution Formats
  • GeoTIFF (Version: 1.0)
  • PNG (Version: 1.2)
  • ArcGIS GRID
Ordering Instructions Data may be searched and downloaded using online services provided by NCEI using the online resource URLs in this record. Contact NCEI Information Services for custom orders. When requesting data from NCEI, the desired data set may be referred to by the unique package identification number listed in this metadata record.
Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Information Services
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 1982-01-01 to 2009-12-31
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 31.97
S: 17.03
E: -78.9
W: -98.68
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2011-06-13
  • revision: 2011-07-29
Edition 3.3
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
The 4 km-resolution 5-day time series used to create these seasonal climatologies is computed from 1982-2009 using the Version 5.0 Pathfinder algorithm, an improved version of the previously most successful of the many methods used to derive SST from AVHRR observations (see Barton (1995) for a review of earlier techniques), the University of Miami Pathfinder version v4.2 SST algorithm (described fully in Kilpatrick et al., 2001). The v4.2 algorithm offered marked improvement over operational retrieval algorithms such as MCSST and was applied to AVHRR data to maximize accuracy and to minimize artificial fluctuations arising from the sequence of AVHRR instruments flown on NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites during the past 2 decades. The 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder SSTs have already been shown to be the highest quality product currently available for the construction of global climatologies (Casey and Cornillon, 1999) and longer-term SST trend determination (Casey and Cornillon, 2001), and have been demonstrated to be accurate within about 0.3 degrees C under optimal conditions (Kearns et al., 2000). Relative to the older 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder data, the new, ~ 4 km resolution Pathfinder Version 5.0 global SSTs increase detail by a factor of four simply by virtue of the increased resolution. The increase in detail over widely used but relatively coarse SST datasets such as Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2; Reynolds et al., 2002) and the Hadley Centre's Global Sea Ice and SST (HadISST1; Rayner et al., 2003) is far greater.

In addition to the increased resolution, significant improvements have been made in the Version 5.0 which enhance the usefulness of the SST fields. Currently, these enhancements include the use of sea ice in the quality level determination scheme, inclusion of many inland water bodies, and the use of a greatly improved land mask. The greatest improvements are seen in coastal zones, marginal seas, and boundary current regions where SST gradients are often large and their impact on operational or research products is greatest. Separate SST products for daytime and nighttime AVHRR retrievals are made to better understand the differences in skin and bulk temperatures, since mean differences between AVHRR-measured skin temperatures and bulk temperatures of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees C (Schluessel et al., 1990) and locally varying differences of up to 1.8 degrees C (Minnett et al., 2000) have been observed.

The following is information to be used when reading the DAY-NIGHT geotiffs generated from the seasonal climatology data files:

Geotiff_Information:
Version: 1 Key_Revision: 1.0 Tagged_Information: ModelTiepointTag (2,3):0 0 0-180 90 0

ModelPixelScaleTag (1,3):0.0439453 0.0439453 0 End_Of_Tags.

Keyed_Information: GTModelTypeGeoKey (Short,1): ModelTypeGeographic

GTRasterTypeGeoKey (Short,1): RasterPixelIsArea GTCitationGeoKey (Ascii,17): 'LONG/LAT E005' GeographicTypeGeoKey
(Short,1): GCS_WGS_84 GeogAngularUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Angular_Degree

ProjLinearUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Linear_Meter End_Of_Keys.

End_Of_Geotiff. GCS: 4326/WGS 84 Datum: 6326/World Geodetic System

1984 Ellipsoid: 7030/WGS 84 (6378137.00,6356752.31) Prime Meridian: 8901/Greenwich (0.000000/ 0d 0' 0.00""E) Projection Linear Units:

9001/metre (1.000000m) Corner Coordinates:Upper Left (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"N) Lower Left (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"S) Upper Right
(180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"N) Lower Right (180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"S) Center ( 0d 0' 0.00"E, 0d 0' 0.00"N)

Note - the Geotiff data files for this accession are not colormapped; users may apply a colormap to these files as desired from within a GIS, Matlab, or orther software. The included .jpg and .png browse graphics provide representative views in color.

Additional processes required for SST climatologies: 1.The individual 5-day day-night cloudscreened files generated as part of the Version 5 Pathfinder Project for 1982-2009 were averaged into 3-month periods, or "seasons," to create a set of initial climatologies. For example, Season 1 of 1982, Season 1 of 1983, ...., Season 1 of 2009 were averaged to create a climatology for Season 1. In addition to the pre-screening of any data with a quality flag of less than 4, data with pixel values less than 16 were masked as NoData. This is because a pixel value translates to -1.8 degrees C, which is the coldest sea surface temperature possible. 2. Then, the temperature value was converted into degrees Celsius (Using the function New value = original value * 0.075 -3.0). 3. The time series maximum, minimum, average, number of observations and standard deviation were used for the final climatology data. 4. The final climatology maximum/minimum/average SST was the average of the time series maximum/minimum/average SST; the final climatology standard deviation was the standard deviation based on the seasonal average time series data; the final climatology number of observations was the total number of observations for all the seasonal time series data. Similar procedures were used for the annual climatology products.

These climatologies were developed from data in the following NODC accessions - NODC Accession numbers 001763, 001764, 001765, 001766, 001767, 001768, 001769, 001770, 001771, 001772, 001773, 001774, 001775, 001776, 001777, 001778, 001779, 0043733, 0043739, 0043745, 0043750, and 0043756.

Color classified images were developed for use online. For the color classified .PNG images, 1) a land mask was applied, 2) a an ArcGIS filtering and smoothing filter was utilized, and 3) the classification was done with a 0.5 degree interval starting from 16 to 32 celsius.

Included land mask developed from GSHHS v2.2.0, July 2011. Citation - Wessel, P., and W. H. F. Smith, A Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline Database, J. Geophys. Res., 101, B4, pp. 8741-8743, 1996.

In this accession, NODC has archived multiple versions of these data. The latest (and best) version of these data has the largest version number.
Purpose To provide high resolution climatologies of SST with high accuracy and spatial resolution for climate change and ecological studies.
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Li, Yuanjie; US DOC/NOAA/NESDIS > National Oceanographic Data Center (2011). AVHRR Pathfinder version 5 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal and annual day-night climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888). Version 3.3. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
Cited Authors
Contributors
Resource Providers
Publishers
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature
  • and Assessment > Remote Sensing > Satellite (digital scans) > AVHRR
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Coastal Habitat
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Climate Indicators
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Hydrosphere > Water Quality > Water Temperature
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > 4km Pathfinder
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > 9km Pathfinder
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > MCSST
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > NLSST
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • NOAA-11 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11
  • NOAA-14 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
  • NOAA-16 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
  • NOAA-17 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17
  • NOAA-18 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-18
  • NOAA-7 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-7
  • NOAA-9 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-9
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • AVHRR-2 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2
  • AVHRR-3 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > GULF OF MEXICO
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • NOAA/NASA PATHFINDER > NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Program
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Li, Yuanjie; US DOC/NOAA/NESDIS > National Oceanographic Data Center (2011). AVHRR Pathfinder version 5 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal and annual day-night climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888). Version 3.3. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
  • Digital data may be downloaded from NCEI at no charge in most cases. For custom orders of digital data or to obtain a copy of analog materials, please contact NCEI Information Services for information about current fees.
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2011-06-13T19:15:11 - NCEI Accession 0072888 v1.1 was published.
  • 2011-06-24T18:16:28 - NCEI Accession 0072888 was revised and v2.2 was published.
    Rationale: Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
  • 2011-07-29T18:20:35 - NCEI Accession 0072888 was revised and v3.3 was published.
    Rationale: Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • AVHRR-2
  • AVHRR-3
Platform
  • NOAA-11
  • NOAA-14
  • NOAA-16
  • NOAA-17
  • NOAA-18
  • NOAA-7
  • NOAA-9
Last Modified: 2018-08-08T21:56:28
For questions about the information on this page, please email: NODC.DataOfficer@noaa.gov