AVHRR Pathfinder version 5 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal and annual day-night climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0072888)


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            title:  AVHRR Pathfinder version 5 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal and annual day-night climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0072888)
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                date:  2011-06-13
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        abstract:  This accession contains a set of sea surface temperature climatologies for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 global 4km sea surface temperature data set. These GOM climatologies were produced from 5-day cloud-screened day-night averages of Pathfinder SST data from 1982-2009, which are archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center under separate accession numbers. In addition to sea surface temperature, the climatologies also include minimum, maximum, standard deviation, and number of observations. The climatologies are available as 32-bit Tagged Image File Format (.TIFF) data files for 1982-2009 and include seasonal and yearly time periods. The climatologies are also included as Arc Grid (.mxd) and .PNG layers with associated legends for user convenience and were assigned projection GCS_WGS_1984. An additional subdirectory contains the annual mean, season 1 (Jan-Mar) mean, season 2 (Apr -June) mean, season 3 (Jul - Sept) mean, and season 4 (Oct-Dec) mean as color-classified .PNG images with a matching shape file that we developed for use in online visualizations. A separate GOM land mask which will also display inland water bodies has been included with this accession. The land mask was developed from the Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline Database v2.2.0 product (Wessel and Smith, 2011). The user should note that although quality flags were assigned consistently for all water pixels, SSTs for inland water bodies (lakes and rivers) should be used with caution, as their accuracy has not been documented and there are numerous complexities involved with determining surface temperatures in inland regions.
        purpose:  To provide high resolution climatologies of SST with high accuracy and spatial resolution for climate change and ecological studies.
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              Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/datatype/details/319 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing > Satellite (digital scans) > AVHRR
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > REEF
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Climate Indicators
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                    individualName:  Wessel, Paul
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        language:
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        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
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        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -98.68
                eastBoundLongitude:  -78.9
                southBoundLatitude:  17.03
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            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
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                    beginPosition:  1982-01-01
                    endPosition:  2009-12-31
        supplementalInformation:  The 4 km-resolution 5-day time series used to create these seasonal climatologies is computed from 1982-2009 using the Version 5.0 Pathfinder algorithm, an improved version of the previously most successful of the many methods used to derive SST from AVHRR observations (see Barton (1995) for a review of earlier techniques), the University of Miami Pathfinder version v4.2 SST algorithm (described fully in Kilpatrick et al., 2001). The v4.2 algorithm offered marked improvement over operational retrieval algorithms such as MCSST and was applied to AVHRR data to maximize accuracy and to minimize artificial fluctuations arising from the sequence of AVHRR instruments flown on NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites during the past 2 decades. The 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder SSTs have already been shown to be the highest quality product currently available for the construction of global climatologies (Casey and Cornillon, 1999) and longer-term SST trend determination (Casey and Cornillon, 2001), and have been demonstrated to be accurate within about 0.3 degrees C under optimal conditions (Kearns et al., 2000). Relative to the older 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder data, the new, ~ 4 km resolution Pathfinder Version 5.0 global SSTs increase detail by a factor of four simply by virtue of the increased resolution. The increase in detail over widely used but relatively coarse SST datasets such as Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2; Reynolds et al., 2002) and the Hadley Centre's Global Sea Ice and SST (HadISST1; Rayner et al., 2003) is far greater. In addition to the increased resolution, significant improvements have been made in the Version 5.0 which enhance the usefulness of the SST fields. Currently, these enhancements include the use of sea ice in the quality level determination scheme, inclusion of many inland water bodies, and the use of a greatly improved land mask. The greatest improvements are seen in coastal zones, marginal seas, and boundary current regions where SST gradients are often large and their impact on operational or research products is greatest. Separate SST products for daytime and nighttime AVHRR retrievals are made to better understand the differences in skin and bulk temperatures, since mean differences between AVHRR-measured skin temperatures and bulk temperatures of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees C (Schluessel et al., 1990) and locally varying differences of up to 1.8 degrees C (Minnett et al., 2000) have been observed. The following is information to be used when reading the DAY-NIGHT geotiffs generated from the seasonal climatology data files: Geotiff_Information: Version: 1 Key_Revision: 1.0 Tagged_Information: ModelTiepointTag (2,3):0 0 0-180 90 0 ModelPixelScaleTag (1,3):0.0439453 0.0439453 0 End_Of_Tags. Keyed_Information: GTModelTypeGeoKey (Short,1): ModelTypeGeographic GTRasterTypeGeoKey (Short,1): RasterPixelIsArea GTCitationGeoKey (Ascii,17): 'LONG/LAT E005' GeographicTypeGeoKey (Short,1): GCS_WGS_84 GeogAngularUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Angular_Degree ProjLinearUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Linear_Meter End_Of_Keys. End_Of_Geotiff. GCS: 4326/WGS 84 Datum: 6326/World Geodetic System 1984 Ellipsoid: 7030/WGS 84 (6378137.00,6356752.31) Prime Meridian: 8901/Greenwich (0.000000/ 0d 0' 0.00""E) Projection Linear Units: 9001/metre (1.000000m) Corner Coordinates:Upper Left (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"N) Lower Left (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"S) Upper Right (180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"N) Lower Right (180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"S) Center ( 0d 0' 0.00"E, 0d 0' 0.00"N) Note - the Geotiff data files for this accession are not colormapped; users may apply a colormap to these files as desired from within a GIS, Matlab, or orther software. The included .jpg and .png browse graphics provide representative views in color. Additional processes required for SST climatologies: 1.The individual 5-day day-night cloudscreened files generated as part of the Version 5 Pathfinder Project for 1982-2009 were averaged into 3-month periods, or "seasons," to create a set of initial climatologies. For example, Season 1 of 1982, Season 1 of 1983, ...., Season 1 of 2009 were averaged to create a climatology for Season 1. In addition to the pre-screening of any data with a quality flag of less than 4, data with pixel values less than 16 were masked as NoData. This is because a pixel value translates to -1.8 degrees C, which is the coldest sea surface temperature possible. 2. Then, the temperature value was converted into degrees Celsius (Using the function New value = original value * 0.075 -3.0). 3. The time series maximum, minimum, average, number of observations and standard deviation were used for the final climatology data. 4. The final climatology maximum/minimum/average SST was the average of the time series maximum/minimum/average SST; the final climatology standard deviation was the standard deviation based on the seasonal average time series data; the final climatology number of observations was the total number of observations for all the seasonal time series data. Similar procedures were used for the annual climatology products. These climatologies were developed from data in the following NODC accessions - NODC Accession numbers 001763, 001764, 001765, 001766, 001767, 001768, 001769, 001770, 001771, 001772, 001773, 001774, 001775, 001776, 001777, 001778, 001779, 0043733, 0043739, 0043745, 0043750, and 0043756. Color classified images were developed for use online. For the color classified .PNG images, 1) a land mask was applied, 2) a an ArcGIS filtering and smoothing filter was utilized, and 3) the classification was done with a 0.5 degree interval starting from 16 to 32 celsius. Included land mask developed from GSHHS v2.2.0, July 2011. Citation - Wessel, P., and W. H. F. Smith, A Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline Database, J. Geophys. Res., 101, B4, pp. 8741-8743, 1996. In this accession, NODC has archived multiple versions of these data. The latest (and best) version of these data has the largest version number.
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v1.1 was published.
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                  DateTime:  2011-06-13T19:15:11Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v1.1
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0072888/1.1
                                    protocol:  HTTP
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v1.1
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v1.1
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NCEI Accession 0072888 was revised and v2.2 was published.
                rationale:  Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2011-06-24T18:16:28Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v2.2
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0072888/2.2
                                    protocol:  HTTP
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v2.2
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v2.2
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NCEI Accession 0072888 was revised and v3.3 was published.
                rationale:  Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2011-07-29T18:20:35Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v3.3
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0072888/3.3
                                    protocol:  HTTP
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v3.3
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0072888 v3.3
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) repository
            levelDescription:  (MD_ScopeDescription)
                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        maintenanceNote:  NCEI Accession 0072888 was revised and a new version of the archival package was published. Updates to existing archival packages may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. The latest version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession. Please see journal.txt in the /about directory for additional details on changes made.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-2
            type:  AVHRR-2
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2 The AVHRR-2 is a multi purpose imaging instrument used for global measurement of cloud cover, sea surface temperature, ice, snow and vegetation cover and characteristics. This instrument was initially carried on NOAA-7 (launched June 1981) and was last flown on NOAA-14 which was decommissioned in 2005. This 5-channel radiometer covering 2 visible and 3 thermal infrared between 0.63 and 12.0 micrometers, has an instantaneous footprint of 1.1 km at the sub satellite point. Additional Information: https://nwpsaf.eu/deliverables/aapp/avhrr_2.html
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-3
            type:  AVHRR-3
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3 The AVHRR-3 is a six channel scanning radiometer providing 3 solar channels in the visible-near infrared region and 3 thermal infrared channels. The AVHRR-3 has two one-micrometer wide channels between 10.3 and 12.5 micrometers. This latest version of AVHRR was first carried on NOAA-15 launched in May 1998 and subsequently in all current NOAA and MetOp platforms. Measuring the same view, this array of diverse wavelengths, after processing, permits multi spectral analysis for more precisely defining hydrologic, oceanographic, and meteorological parameters. Comparison of data from two channels is often used to observe features or measure various environmental parameters. The three channels operating entirely within the infrared band are used to detect the heat radiation from and hence, the temperature of land, water, sea surfaces, and the clouds above them. Additional Information: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pod-guide/ncdc/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-1.htm
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-11
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/333 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-14
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/336 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-16
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-16 from United States. Name NOAA-16 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2000 Decommissioned Date 2014 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched September 2000. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information Source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/338 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-17
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-17 from United States. Name NOAA-17 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2002 Decommissioned Date 2013 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched June 2002. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/339 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-18
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-18 from United States. Name NOAA-18 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2005 Decommissioned Date 2016 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched May 2005 as NOAA-N. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/340 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-7
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-7 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-7 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Commissioned Date 1981-06-23 Decommissioned Date 1986-06-07 Notes Selected global data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Space weather and operational meteorology. Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/329 All known Instruments flying on NOAA-7 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument: (missing)
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-9
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-9 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-9 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08. Commissioned Date 1984-12-12 Decommissioned Date 1998-02-13 Notes Selected global operational meteorology data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Atmospheric chemistry and Space weather. All known Instruments flying on NOAA-9 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 ERBE - Earth Radiation Budget Experiment HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit S&RSAT - Search & Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking System SBUV/2 - Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet / 2 SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/331 Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument: (missing)