AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0 and 5.1 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) monthly harmonic climatologies for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession 0075098)

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This accession contains a global, 4km monthly sea surface temperature climatology derived from harmonic analysis of the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 sea surface temperature time series data for 1982-2008. The climatology is available as 12 separate files, each representing one month in a climatological year. The files are in netCDF-4 and fully comply with the GHRSST Data Specification 2.0 for Level 4 products. In addition to climatological sea surface temperature, each file contains standard deviation, sea ice concentration, sea ice concentration error, and land mask information.

This accession also includes a 'classic,' or mean, monthly sea surface temperature climatology derived from the same Pathfinder time series data. This climatology was used to gap-fill the harmonic climatology, and provided the standard deviation information. It is available as 12 separate files in Hierarchical Data Format Version 4 (HDF4).

In some ice-dominated high-latitude areas, the harmonic climatology is poorly constrained due to uneven distribution throughout the year of the valid measurements. For example, at 82.6N, 48W off the coast of Greenland, temperatures estimated in the harmonic climatology reach over 35C. In these regions, the classic, averaged climatological values may be more reliable.

Associated daily and 5-day harmonic climatologies are archived at NODC under accessions 0071181 and 0071182, respectively.
  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth; Kearns, Edward J.; Halliwell, Vicki; Evans, Robert (2011). AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0 and 5.1 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) monthly harmonic climatologies for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession 0075098). Version 1.1. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
  • Please refer to Credit tab for full citation information.
gov.noaa.nodc:0075098
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Distribution Formats
  • NetCDF (Version: 4.1.2 classic model)
  • HDF (Version: 20080214)
    • File Specification: NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF 4), Scientific Data Set (HDF-SDS)
Ordering Instructions Data may be searched and downloaded using online services provided by NCEI using the online resource URLs in this record. Contact NCEI Information Services for custom orders. When requesting data from NCEI, the desired data set may be referred to by the unique package identification number listed in this metadata record.
Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Information Services
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 1982-01-01 to 2008-12-31
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90
S: -90
E: 180
W: -180
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2011-12-17
Edition 1.1
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
The procedure used to generate this monthly harmonic climatology can be broken down into two primary components:

1. Harmonic analysis of time series data

The harmonic climatology is created by fitting to a time series of SST data at each pixel a cosine function containing both annual and semi-annual components:

SST = A * cos(2pi*t + B) + C * cos(4pi*t + D) + E

The constants A and B correspond to the annual amplitude and annual phase, respectively. The constants C and D correspond to the semi-annual amplitude and phase. The constant E is the long term mean at that pixel.

The input time series consists of pentad (5-day) averages of best-quality data (quality flag 7) only for 1982-2008. These data are archived by NODC in separate yearly accessions and are available online at https://data.nodc.noaa.gov/opendap/pathfinder/Version5.0_CloudScreened/5day/FullRes/.

To create a gap-free data set for analysis, median spatial fill routines are applied to each 5-day global SST average in the time series. Using a curve-fitting tool in Matlab (lsqcurvefit.m), the cosine function is fit to the SST time series and the five harmonic constants are calculated. Note: If fewer than 100 good observations are available for a given pixel, the amplitudes (A and C) are set to zero, phases (B and D) set to one, and the long term mean (E) is set to the mean at that pixel.

2. Application of harmonic parameters

The five harmonic constants can then be plugged into the cosine function to solve for sea surface temperature at any temporal resolution. In this case, the constants are applied at a monthly resolution to calculate sea surface temperature for 12 months in a climatological year. For pixels missing SST values, where the harmonic analysis failed to converge to a solution, median spatial fill routines are applied. Any remaining pixels with missing values after median filling are filled using SST values from the classic climatology.

File-naming convention for monthly harmonic climatology files:
[0000][MMDD][HHMMSS]-NODC-L4_GHRSST-SSTskin-AVHRR_Pathfinder-PFV5.0_Monthly_Climatology_1982_2008_DayNightCombined-v02.0-fv[##.#].nc

0000 - representative year of analysis (climatological year)
MMDD - representative month and day of analysis, e.g. 0630 for June 30 of the climatological year
HHMMSS - representative time (6-digit hour, minute and second) of analysis.
##.# - file version, e.g. 01.0
Purpose To provide daily day-night combined climatologies of SST with high accuracy and high spatial resolution.
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth; Kearns, Edward J.; Halliwell, Vicki; Evans, Robert (2011). AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0 and 5.1 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) monthly harmonic climatologies for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession 0075098). Version 1.1. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
  • Please also cite: Casey, K.S., T.B. Brandon, P. Cornillon, and R. Evans (2010). "The Past, Present and Future of the AVHRR Pathfinder SST Program", in Oceanography from Space: Revisited, eds. V. Barale, J.F.R. Gower, and L. Alberotanza, Springer. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8681-5_16
Cited Authors
Contributors
Resource Providers
Publishers
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > COASTAL
  • EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > REEF > CORAL REEF
  • EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE INDICES
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > CORAL REEFS
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > 4km Pathfinder
  • EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > WATER CHARACTERISTICS > WATER TEMPERATURE
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • NOAA-11 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11
  • NOAA-14 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
  • NOAA-16 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
  • NOAA-17 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17
  • NOAA-18 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-18
  • NOAA-7 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-7
  • NOAA-9 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-9
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • AVHRR-2 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2
  • AVHRR-3 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL OCEAN
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • NOAA/NASA PATHFINDER > NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Program
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth; Kearns, Edward J.; Halliwell, Vicki; Evans, Robert (2011). AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0 and 5.1 4km global sea surface temperature (SST) monthly harmonic climatologies for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession 0075098). Version 1.1. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
  • Please also cite: Casey, K.S., T.B. Brandon, P. Cornillon, and R. Evans (2010). "The Past, Present and Future of the AVHRR Pathfinder SST Program", in Oceanography from Space: Revisited, eds. V. Barale, J.F.R. Gower, and L. Alberotanza, Springer. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8681-5_16
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
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Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2011-12-17T21:14:54 - NCEI Accession 0075098 v1.1 was published.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • AVHRR-2
  • AVHRR-3
Platform
  • NOAA-11
  • NOAA-14
  • NOAA-16
  • NOAA-17
  • NOAA-18
  • NOAA-7
  • NOAA-9
Last Modified: 2018-11-01T15:13:19
For questions about the information on this page, please email: NODC.DataOfficer@noaa.gov