Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from October 7, 1977 to March 11, 2006, as synthesized in the CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) Database (NODC Accession 0113899)

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The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has produced a merged internally consistent data set of open ocean subsurface measurements for biogeochemical investigations, in particular, studies involving the carbon system. The original focus area was the North Atlantic Ocean, but over time the geographic extent expanded and CARINA now includes data from the entire Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean, and the Southern Ocean.

Atlantic Ocean Data Synthesis

The Atlantic Ocean subset of the CARINA (CARINA-ATL) data set consists of 98 cruises/entries, of which one of is a time series including many cruises and two others are collections of multiple cruises within the framework of a common project. Additionally, six reference cruises were included in the secondary QC for CARINA-ATL to ensure consistency between CARINA and historical databases, in particular Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP, Key et al., 2004). FiveAtlantic cruises are in common with the Southern Ocean region, and five others are in common with the Arctic Mediterranean Seas region. These overlapping cruises ensure consistency between the three regions of the CARINA data set. The Atlantic Ocean region of CARINA is loosely defined as the area between of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and 30 °S, but as mentioned, ten cruises overlap with the surrounding regions, thus extending the area covered. Most of the data are from the subpolar North Atlantic, and there are particularly large data gaps in the Tropical and South-Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The CARINA-ATL database covers the time period from 1978 to 2006, with the majority of the data from the mid 1990s to the mid 2000s. Overall, oxygen measurements show the highest incidence, followed by TCO2, Alkalinity and CFC data, although CFC data are particularly abundant for some specific regions.

Arctic Mediterranean Seas Data Synthesis

The Arctic Mediterranean Seas subset of CARINA (CARINA-AMS) includes data from 62 cruises/campaigns in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas. One of these is a time series and one is a collection of data from multiple cruises to the same area conducted within a year. Five of the CARINA-AMS entries are in common with the CARINA-ATL subset ensuring consistency with the other CARINA subsets and thus GLODAP. While data coverage was quite dense in the Nordic Seas, it was sparse in the Arctic Ocean. This motivated the use of different methods for quality control in these two areas. The Arctic Ocean was defined as the region north of the Fram and Bering Straits, the Arctic Ocean shelf seas, and the Canadian Archipelago. The Nordic Seas was defined as the region enclosed by the Fram Strait to the North, Greenland to the west, the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to the South, and Norway, the Barents Sea Opening, and Spitsbergen to the east. The analyses of the Arctic Ocean data involved extended use of linear and multiple linear regressions and is described by Jutterström et al. (2009), while the analyses of the Nordic Seas data was mostly carried out using the crossover and inversion approach and is described per parameter in Falck and Olsen (2009), Olafsson and Olsen (2009), Olsen (2009), Olsen (2009) and Olsen et al.(2009). The analyses of the AMS CFC data are described by Jeansson et al. (2009).

Southern Ocean Carbon Synthesis

Compared to other regions within the CARINA data set, the Southern Ocean database consists of relatively few data - 37 cruises. Five cruises in the northern part of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are in common with the CARINA-ATL, thus additionally warranting high internal data quality. The northern boundary of the CARINA Southern Ocean region is roughly at 30°S latitude. Considering all stations in the Southern Ocean CARINA dataset there is a bias towards the north, indicating that data close to the Antarctic continent is still sparse. Besides the new CARINA cruises, 46 cruises from the GLODAP database were incorporated in the analysis as reference cruises. Nutrient and oxygen data have a clearly higher incidence than TCO2 and total alkalinity data. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are also included in the Southern Ocean dataset, but they have not been quality controlled. Not surprisingly, most of the CARINA Southern Ocean data originate from the post-GLODAP era, i.e., from 2000 or later. Region specific quality control is described in three papers, for the Pacific sector by Sabine et al. (2009), the Indian sector by Lo Monaco et al. (2009) and the Atlantic sector by Hoppema et al. (2009).
  • Cite as: Tanhua, Toste; Olsen, Are; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Schirnick, Carsten; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Kozyr, Alex; Álvarez, Marta; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Brown, Peter J.; Falck, Eva; Jeansson, Emil; Lo Monaco, Claire; Ólafsson, Jón; Pérez, Fiz F.; Pierrot, Denis; Ríos, Aída F.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Schuster, Ute; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Stendardo, Ilaria; Anderson, Leif G.; Bates, Nicholas; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Blindheim, Johan; Bullister, John L.; Gruber, Nicholas; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Jones, E. Peter; Köhler, Janna; Körtzinger, Arne; Metzl, Nicolas; Murata, Akihiko; Musielewicz, Sylvia; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Olsson, K. Anders; de la Paz, Mercedes; Pfeil, Benjamin; Rey, Francisco; Rhein, Monika; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik; Mintrop, Ludger; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Key, Robert M. (2013). Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from October 7, 1977 to March 11, 2006, as synthesized in the CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) Database (NODC Accession 0113899). Version 2.2. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0113899
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Distribution Formats
  • Originator data format
Ordering Instructions Data may be searched and downloaded using online services provided by NCEI using the online resource URLs in this record. Contact NCEI Information Services for custom orders. When requesting data from NCEI, the desired data set may be referred to by the unique package identification number listed in this metadata record.
Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Information Services
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 1977-10-07 to 2006-03-11
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90
S: -78.2733
E: 122.882
W: 125.047
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2013-11-19
  • revision: 2014-02-28
Edition 2.2
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
These data products were created and are offered by The CARINA Group:

Tanhua, T., A. Olsen, M. Hoppema, S. Jutterström, C. Schirnick, S. van Heuven, A. Velo, X. Lin, A. Kozyr, M. Alvarez, D.C.E. Bakker, P. Brown, E. Falck, E. Jeansson, C. Lo Monaco, J. Olafsson, F.F. Perez, D. Pierrot, A.F. Rios, C.L. Sabine, U. Schuster, R. Steinfeldt, I. Stendardo, L.G. Anderson, N.R. Bates, R.G.J. Bellerby, J. Blindheim, J.L. Bullister, N. Gruber, M. Ishii, T. Johannessen, E.P. Jones, J. Kohler, A. Kortzinger, N. Metzl, A. Murata, S. Musielewicz, A.M. Omar, K.A. Olsson, M. de la Paz, B. Pfeil, F. Rey, M. Rhein, I. Skjelvan, B. Tilbrook, R. Wanninkhof, L. Mintrop, D.W.R. Wallace, and R.M. Key.

The table with all The CARINA Group names and their affiliations can be found here:

(http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/CARINA/Carina_Group.html).

AMS= Arctic Mediterranean Seas;
ATL= Atlantic Ocean;
SO = Southern Ocean.

A lookup table is included for each data product (e.g. ATLcruises.csv for the ATLantic data product). These tables are simple comma
separated ascii files with 4 fields per record: expocode, cruiseno (number), basename, and region. In the data products, cruises
are identified only by the cruise number. The basename is provided for compatibility with existing Matlab routines developed for
this work and is probably useless for anyone other than CARINA members. Care must be taken when reading the EXPOCODEs because one
(cruiseno=83, area 4, 320620030705) is purely numeric rather than the usual mixture of alphabetic and numeric characters.The area
column is an integer which designates the general location for each cruise. Area indicators 3 and 5 denote cruises that were included
in more than one data product and that span the boundary between regions.

Area codes in lookup tables:

1 = Atlantic Ocean
2 = Southern Ocean
3 = Atlantic & Southern Ocean
4 = Arctic Mediterranean Seas
5 = Atlantic Ocean & Arctic Mediterranean Seas

Data Log.

24 June 2009 Received CARINA.SO.V1.0.csv.zip Robert M. Key, Princeton University.

01 July 2009 Reseived CARINA.ATL.V1.0.csv.zip and CARINA.AMS.V1.0.csv.zip from Robert M. Key, Princeton University.

11 August 2009 Received CARINA.AMS.V1.1.csv.zip file from Robert M. Key
Notes: V1.1 includes calculated pH for cruise number 47 (18SN19940724).

17 August 2009 Received CARINA.AMS.V1.2.csv.zip file from Robert M. Key
Notes: Updated Phosphate quality flags for 3 stations in the file for cruise number 119 (58AA19950217),
created new CARINA.AMS.V1.2.csv.zip file

12 Feb. 2010 Received CARINA.SO.V1.1.csv.zip from Robert M. Key, Princeton University.
Notes: CARINA.SO.V1.1.csv- this is the data product file with the new nitrite
values and flags. It should be put on-line with todays date. The note should indicate that the
nitrite values for cruise 115 in version 1.0 were incorrect and have been corrected in this version.
Purpose Basic research
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Tanhua, Toste; Olsen, Are; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Schirnick, Carsten; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Kozyr, Alex; Álvarez, Marta; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Brown, Peter J.; Falck, Eva; Jeansson, Emil; Lo Monaco, Claire; Ólafsson, Jón; Pérez, Fiz F.; Pierrot, Denis; Ríos, Aída F.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Schuster, Ute; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Stendardo, Ilaria; Anderson, Leif G.; Bates, Nicholas; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Blindheim, Johan; Bullister, John L.; Gruber, Nicholas; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Jones, E. Peter; Köhler, Janna; Körtzinger, Arne; Metzl, Nicolas; Murata, Akihiko; Musielewicz, Sylvia; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Olsson, K. Anders; de la Paz, Mercedes; Pfeil, Benjamin; Rey, Francisco; Rhein, Monika; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik; Mintrop, Ludger; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Key, Robert M. (2013). Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from October 7, 1977 to March 11, 2006, as synthesized in the CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) Database (NODC Accession 0113899). Version 2.2. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
Cited Authors
  • Tanhua, Toste
  • Olsen, Are
  • Hoppema, Mario
  • Jutterström, Sara
  • Schirnick, Carsten
  • van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.
  • Velo, Anton
  • Lin, Xiaohua
  • Kozyr, Alex
  • Álvarez, Marta
  • Bakker, Dorothee C. E.
  • Brown, Peter J.
  • Falck, Eva
  • Jeansson, Emil
  • Lo Monaco, Claire
  • Ólafsson, Jón
  • Pérez, Fiz F.
  • Pierrot, Denis
  • Ríos, Aída F.
  • Sabine, Christopher L.
  • Schuster, Ute
  • Steinfeldt, Reiner
  • Stendardo, Ilaria
  • Anderson, Leif G.
  • Bates, Nicholas
  • Bellerby, Richard G. J.
  • Blindheim, Johan
  • Bullister, John L.
  • Gruber, Nicholas
  • Ishii, Masao
  • Johannessen, Truls
  • Jones, E. Peter
  • Köhler, Janna
  • Körtzinger, Arne
  • Metzl, Nicolas
  • Murata, Akihiko
  • Musielewicz, Sylvia
  • Omar, Abdirahman M.
  • Olsson, K. Anders
  • de la Paz, Mercedes
  • Pfeil, Benjamin
  • Rey, Francisco
  • Rhein, Monika
  • Skjelvan, Ingunn
  • Tilbrook, Bronte
  • Wanninkhof, Rik
  • Mintrop, Ludger
  • Wallace, Douglas W. R.
  • Key, Robert M.
Resource Providers
Publishers
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ALKALINITY
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > INORGANIC CARBON
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRITE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PH
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PHOSPHATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > SILICATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALINITY
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • SHIPS
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • CTD > Conductivity, Temperature, Depth
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN > BARENTS SEA
  • OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN > BEAUFORT SEA
  • OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN > CHUKCHI SEA
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > CARIBBEAN SEA
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > DAVIS STRAIT
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > GULF OF ST LAWRENCE
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > MEDITERRANEAN SEA
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH SEA
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORWEGIAN SEA
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > INDIAN OCEAN
  • OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN > BERING SEA
  • OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
  • CARINA > CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) Data Synthesis Project
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Tanhua, Toste; Olsen, Are; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Schirnick, Carsten; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Kozyr, Alex; Álvarez, Marta; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Brown, Peter J.; Falck, Eva; Jeansson, Emil; Lo Monaco, Claire; Ólafsson, Jón; Pérez, Fiz F.; Pierrot, Denis; Ríos, Aída F.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Schuster, Ute; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Stendardo, Ilaria; Anderson, Leif G.; Bates, Nicholas; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Blindheim, Johan; Bullister, John L.; Gruber, Nicholas; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Jones, E. Peter; Köhler, Janna; Körtzinger, Arne; Metzl, Nicolas; Murata, Akihiko; Musielewicz, Sylvia; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Olsson, K. Anders; de la Paz, Mercedes; Pfeil, Benjamin; Rey, Francisco; Rhein, Monika; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik; Mintrop, Ludger; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Key, Robert M. (2013). Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from October 7, 1977 to March 11, 2006, as synthesized in the CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) Database (NODC Accession 0113899). Version 2.2. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
  • Digital data may be downloaded from NCEI at no charge in most cases. For custom orders of digital data or to obtain a copy of analog materials, please contact NCEI Information Services for information about current fees.
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2013-11-19T20:20:33 - NCEI Accession 0113899 v1.1 was published.
  • 2014-02-28T16:26:40 - NCEI Accession 0113899 was revised and v2.2 was published.
    Rationale: Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • bottle
  • CTD
Platform
  • AKADEMIK FYODOROV
  • AKADEMIK SERGEY VAVILOV
  • ARANDA
  • ATLANTIS II
  • AURORA AUSTRALIS
  • CHARLES DARWIN
  • CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA
  • DISCOVERY
  • ENDEAVOR
  • FRANKLIN
  • G.O. SARS
  • GARCIA DEL CID
  • GAUSS
  • HAAKON MOSBY
  • Hakuho Maru
  • HEALY
  • HESPERIDES
  • HUDSON
  • JAMES CLARK ROSS
  • JAN MAYEN
  • JOHAN HJORT
  • KNORR
  • L'ATALANTE
  • LANCE
  • LE SUROIT
  • LINK
  • LOUIS S. ST-LAURENT
  • MARCONA PROSPECTOR
  • MARION DUFRESNE
  • METEOR
  • MIRAI
  • OCEANUS
  • ODEN
  • PELAGIA
  • PIERRE RADISSON
  • POLARSTERN
  • PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI
  • ROGER REVELLE
  • RONALD H. BROWN
  • S. A. AGULHAS
  • SEWARD JOHNSON
  • SHIRASE
  • SONNE
  • STENA ARCTICA
  • TANGAROA
  • THALASSA
  • TYRO
  • USCGC POLAR SEA
  • USCGC POLAR STAR
  • YMER
Last Modified: 2018-05-08T15:17:51
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