Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123467)

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This archival package contains the discrete bottle (CTD profile) data of the first dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (WCOA2011). The cruise took place August 12-30, 2011 aboard the R/V Wecoma. Ninety-five stations were occupied from northern Washington to southern California along thirteen transect lines. At all stations, CTD casts were conducted, and discrete water samples were collected in Niskin bottles. The cruise was designed to obtain a synoptic snapshot of key carbon, physical, and biogeochemical parameters as they relate to ocean acidification (OA) in the coastal realm. During the cruise, some of the same transect lines were occupied as during the 2007 West Coast Carbon cruise, as well as many CalCOFI stations. This effort was conducted in support of the coastal monitoring and research objectives of the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP).
  • Cite as: Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Hales, Burke; Johnson, Gregory C.; Juranek, Laurie W.; Byrne, Robert H.; Peterson, William T.; Goni, Miguel; Liu, Xuewu; Greeley, Dana (2015). Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123467). Version 2.2. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5JQ0XZ1 [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0123467
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Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
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DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 48.3776
S: 31.9507
E: -117.7538
W: -127.5523
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
  • Project Metadata
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  • Dataset Description
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  • Descriptive Information
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Publication Dates
  • publication: 2015-01-05
  • revision: 2015-01-07
Edition 2.2
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
EXPOCODE: 32WC20110812
CRUISE ID: WCOA2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Richard A. Feely; Simone R. Alin; Lauren W. Juranek;Gregory C. Johnson; Burke Hales; Robert H. Byrne; Miguel Goni; William T. Peterson.

FUNDING AGENCY: NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program (OAP).
PROJECT TITLE: Ocean Acidification Monitoring Network: West Coast Hydrographic Cruise.
PROJECT ID: OAPFY13.03.PMEL.003.

In this accession, NCEI has archived multiple versions of these data. The latest (and best) version of these data has the largest version number.
Purpose The major objectives of the cruise were: 1) To characterize ocean acidification (OA) conditions on the U.S. West Coast; 2) To conduct inter-calibration measurements near other OA observing assets, including gliders and moorings, in the study area, allowing inter-calibration of these autonomous assets with high-quality, ship-based measurements; 3) To provide calibration data needed to develop predictive models for aragonite saturation state, pH, and other important OA indicators in the California Current System, based on widely measured parameters such as salinity, temperature, and oxygen concentration; 4) To examine relationships between processes leading to OA and hypoxia in coastal ecosystems; 5) To conduct biological measurements in conjunction with physical and chemical OA measurements; and 6) To provide scientific information on OA conditions and trends for resource management and decision support.
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Hales, Burke; Johnson, Gregory C.; Juranek, Laurie W.; Byrne, Robert H.; Peterson, William T.; Goni, Miguel; Liu, Xuewu; Greeley, Dana (2015). Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123467). Version 2.2. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5JQ0XZ1 [access date]
Cited Authors
  • Feely, Richard A.
  • Alin, Simone R.
  • Hales, Burke
  • Johnson, Gregory C.
  • Juranek, Laurie W.
  • Byrne, Robert H.
  • Peterson, William T.
  • Goni, Miguel
  • Liu, Xuewu
  • Greeley, Dana
Principal Investigators
Contributors
Resource Providers
Publishers
Acknowledgments
  • Funding Information: NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program (Ocean Acidification Monitoring Network: West Coast Hydrographic Cruise, OAPFY13.03.PMEL.003)
  • Funding Information: NOAA's Global Carbon Cycle Program (N/A, #GC10-102)
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
Cruise ID
  • WCOA2011
EXPOCODE
  • 32WC20110812
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ALKALINITY
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > AMMONIA
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CHLOROPHYLL
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > INORGANIC CARBON
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRITE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITROGEN
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ORGANIC CARBON
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PH
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PHOSPHATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > SILICATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN PRESSURE > WATER PRESSURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALINITY
Provider Variable Names
  • Ammoniaumol/kg
  • Bot O2umol/kg
  • CTD OXY (umol/kg)
  • CTD Salt
  • CTD To ITS-90
  • Chlorophyll a concentration ug/L
  • DICumol/kg
  • Nitrateumol/kg
  • Nitriteumol/kg
  • POC umol/L
  • POC umol/kg
  • POC/PON mol/mol
  • PON umol/L
  • PON umol/kg
  • Phosphateumol/kg
  • Press (db)
  • Silicateumol/kg
  • TAumol/kg
  • bot salt
  • pH total meas 25degrees Celsius
Reference Section ID
  • West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA)
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NMFS/NWFSC > Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/OAR/PMEL > Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • OPTSPEC > Optical Spectrometer
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
Provider Geographic Names
  • North Pacific Ocean
  • U.S. West Coast California Current System
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Ocean Acidification Search Keywords
  • Ocean Acidification Data Stewardship (OADS) Project
  • Ocean Acidification Program (OAP)
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Hales, Burke; Johnson, Gregory C.; Juranek, Laurie W.; Byrne, Robert H.; Peterson, William T.; Goni, Miguel; Liu, Xuewu; Greeley, Dana (2015). Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123467). Version 2.2. National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5JQ0XZ1 [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
  • Digital data may be downloaded from NCEI at no charge in most cases. For custom orders of digital data or to obtain a copy of analog materials, please contact NCEI Information Services for information about current fees.
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2015-01-05T13:56:06 - NCEI Accession 0123467 v1.1 was published.
  • 2015-01-07T18:41:10 - NCEI Accession 0123467 was revised and v2.2 was published.
    Rationale: Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • Parameter or Variable: Dissolved Inorganic Carbon; Abbreviation: DICumol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Two systems consisting of a coulometer (UIC Inc.) coupled with a Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Extractor (DICE) inlet system. DICE was developed by Esa Peltola and Denis Pierrot of NOAA/AOML and Dana Greeley of NOAA/PMEL to modernize a carbon extractor called SOMMA (Johnson et al. 1985, 1987, 1993, and 1999; Johnson 1992); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples for DIC measurements were drawn according to procedures outlined in the 2007 PICES Special Publication, Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements, from Niskin bottles into 310 ml borosilicate glass flasks using silicone tubing. The flasks were rinsed once and filled from the bottom with care not to entrain any bubbles, overflowing by at least one-half volume. The sample tube was pinched off and withdrawn, creating a ~7.5 ml headspace and 0.133 ml of saturated HgCl2 solution was added as a preservative. The sample bottles were then sealed with glass stoppers lightly covered with Apiezon-L grease. DIC samples were collected from variety of depths with approximately 10% of these samples taken as duplicates. The accuracy of the DICE measurement is determined with the use of standards (Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), consisting of filtered and UV irradiated seawater) supplied by Dr. A. Dickson of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). The CRM accuracy is determined manometrically on land in San Diego and the DIC data reported to the data base have been corrected to this batch 109 CRM value. The CRM certified value for this batch is 2026.33umol/kg. During this cruise both systems reported values which were consistently lower than the certified value. This offset we believe to be due to the fact that the temperature of the gas loop housing was offset from the lab temperature in which the gas cylinder was kept. As the gas loops and CRM values were consistent throughout, we have great confidence in our final value after correcting for this CRM offset. Summary The overall performance of the analytical equipment was good during the cruise. We were able to sample every niskin Niskin made available to us; and including the duplicates and samples drawn from the underway seawater line, 1450 samples were analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon. ; Replicate information: Duplicate samples were collected from approximately 10% of the Niskins sampled, as a check of our precision. These replicate samples were interspersed throughout the station analysis for quality assurance and integrity of the coulometer cell solutions. The average absolute difference from the mean of these replicates is 1.04umol/kg. No systematic differences between the replicates were observed.; Standardization description: Each coulometer was calibrated by injecting aliquots of pure CO2 (99.999%) by means of an 8-port valve (Wilke et al., 1993) outfitted with two calibrated sample loops of different sizes (~1ml and ~2ml). The instruments were each separately calibrated at the beginning of each cell with a minimum of two sets of these gas loop injections and then again at the end of each cell to ensure no drift during the life of the cell. ; Standardization frequency: 1) Gas loops were run at the beginning and end of each cell; 2) CRM is supplied by Dr. A. Dickson of SIO, were measured near the beginning; and 3) Duplicate samples were typically run throughout the life of the cell solution.; CRM manufacturer: Dr. A. Dickson (SIO); Poison name: Mercuric Chloride Solution; Poison volume: 0.133 ml; Poison correction: The DIC values were corrected for dilution by 0.133 ml of saturated HgCl2 used for sample preservation. The total water volume of the sample bottles was 302.55 ml. The correction factor used for dilution was 1.00044. ; Uncertainty: minus/plus 0.1%; Quality flag convention: DIC_QC, WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Dickson, A.G., C.L. Sabine, and J.R. Christian (eds.). 2007. Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements. PICES Special Publication 3, 191 pp. Johnson, K.M., A.E. King, and J. McN. Sieburth. 1985. Coulometric DIC analyses for marine studies: An introduction. Mar. Chem., 16, 61-82. Johnson, K.M., P.J. Williams, L. Brandstrom, and J. McN. Sieburth. 1987. Coulometric total carbon analysis for marine studies: Automation and calibration. Mar. Chem., 21, 117-133. Johnson, K.M. 1992. Operator's manual: Single operator multiparameter metabolic analyzer (SOMMA) for total carbon dioxide (CT) with coulometric detection. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven, N.Y., 70 pp. Johnson, K.M., K.D. Wills, D.B. Butler, W.K. Johnson, and C.S. Wong. 1993. Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Maximizing the performance of an automated continuous gas extraction system and coulometric detector. Mar. Chem., 44, 167-189. Johnson, K.M., Kortzinger, A.; Mintrop, L.; Duinker, J.C.; and Wallace, D.W.R. 1999. Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Measurement and internal consistency of underway surface TCO2 concentrations. Marine Chemistry 67(1):123-144. ; Researcher name: Dana Greeley; Researcher institution: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; PI: Richard Feely.
  • Parameter or Variable: Total alkalinity; Abbreviation: TAumol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Custom instrument, built at PMEL and modeled after an earlier generation of those made in Andrew Dickson's lab.; Type of titration: Two-stage, potentiometric, open-cell titration using coulometrically analyzed hydrochloric acid; Cell type (open or closed): Open; Curve fitting method: Non-linear least squares; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater total alkalinity (TA) was measured by acidimetric titration. The specific method used was based upon the open-cell method described by Dickson et al (2003). This method involves first acidifying the sample to reduce the sample pH to less than 3.6 followed by bubbling CO2-free air through the sample to facilitate removal of the CO2 evolved by the acid addition. After removal of the carbonate species from solution, the titration proceeds until a pH of less than 3.0 is attained, and the equivalence point evaluated from titration points in the pH region 3.0-3.5 using a non-linear least squares procedure that corrects for the reactions with sulfate and fluoride ions (Dickson et al. 2003). Titration progress is monitored by measuring the electromotive force (E) of a combination glass-reference electrode. Samples were drawn from the Niskin-type bottles into cleaned 250-ml borosilicate glass bottles using Tygon tubing with silicone ends. Bottles were rinsed twice and filled from the bottom, overflowing half a volume and taking care not to entrain any bubbles. The sample tube was closed off and withdrawn from the sample bottle, creating a 5 ml headspace. Samples were preserved by poisoning with 0.133 ml of a saturated HgCl2 solution. Sample bottles were sealed with glass stoppers lightly coated with Apiezon-L grease, and were stored at room temperature (21-25 degrees Celsius) for a maximum of 12 hours prior to analysis. Titrations were carried out in water-jacketed, 250-ml beakers. The beakers were kept at 24.0 minus/plus 0.2 degrees Celsius with water from a constant temperature bath. Prior to analysis, samples were placed in the water bath to bring them to the same temperature as the reaction beakers. Seawater samples were dispensed into the water-jacketed beaker using a fixed volume glass syringe. A Metrohm Dosimat 765 was used to deliver acid to the sample beaker in increments of 0.040 ml. The acid titrant used was 0.1 mol/kg HCl prepared in 0.6 mol/kg NaCl background to approximate the ionic strength of seawater (0.7 mol/kg). Instrument control and data acquisition was with custom software developed in Andrew Dickson's laboratory at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and modified by a former employee of the NOAA/PMEL Carbon Group using the National Instruments LabView programming environment. Over the course of the cruise we analyzed over 1,500 samples, including duplicate samples and certified reference materials (CRMs). Typical titrations were completed in 10-14 minutes and required 20-24 acid additions to reach a pH of 3.0. 1,256 values were reported to the database. ; Replicate information: We collected and analyzed duplicate samples from approximately 10% of the Niskins sampled.; Standardization description: Analytical accuracy was assessed by periodic analysis of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) throughout the cruise. CRMs were analyzed approximately every 24 samples. For this CRM batch, the average offset for system 1 was 1.16 with a standard deviation of 1.24. The average offset for system 2 was 0.21 with a standard deviation of 1.67.; Standardization frequency: All values were directly measured with reference to Certified Reference Material (Dickson, SIO); CRM manufacturer: Andrew Dickson's lab at Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Poison name: Mercuric Chloride Solution; Poison volume: 0.133 ml; Poison correction: The TA values were corrected for dilution by 0.133 ml of saturated HgCl2 used for sample preservation. The total water volume of the sample bottles was 266 ml. The correction factor used for dilution was 1.0005. ; TA blank correction: n.a.; Uncertainty: The precision of this method is better than 0.1% and accuracy is 0.1%.; Quality flag convention: TA_QC, WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Bates, R.G. Determination of pH. Theory and Practice. A Wiley-Interscience Publication, Second Edition. Dickson A.G. (1981). An exact definition of total alkalinity, and a procedure for the estimation of alkalinity and total inorganic carbon from titration data. Deep-Sea Res. 28, 609-623. Dickson A.G. (1992). The development of the alkalinity concept in marine chemistry. Marine chemistry 40:1-21-2, 49-63. Dickson, A. G., Afghan, J. D. and Anderson, G. C. (2003). Reference materials for oceanic CO2 analysis: A method for the certification of total alkalinity. Marine Chemistry 80, 185-197 Gran G. (1952). Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. Part II. The analyst, 77, 661-671. Wolf-Gladrow, D.A. et al. (2007). Total alkalinity: The explicit conservative expression and its application to biogeochemical process. ; Researcher name: Cynthia Peacock; Researcher institution: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; PI: Simone Alin.
  • Parameter or Variable: pH; Abbreviation: pH total meas 25degrees Celsius; pH scale: Total; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: The pH of each sample was determined on the total pH scale on an Agilent 8453 spectrometer set up with a custom-made temperature-controlled cell holder.; Temperature of pH measurement: 25 (minus/plus 0.05) degrees Celsius; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples were collected for pH analysis immediately following O2 in the Niskin/Rosette sampling sequence. Seawater samples were collected from the Niskin bottles directly in 10-cm cylindrical optical cells (~30 mL volume) using a section of silicone tubing (about 15 cm long). One end of the silicone tubing was attached to the optical cell and the other end was attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. The Niskin bottle nipple was pushed in to initiate flow and the silicone tubing was squeezed to eliminate air bubbles. The optical cell was agitated to eliminate bubbles and, after 15 seconds of sample flow, the cell was capped at one end. The silicone tubing was then detached from the optical cell and, with the water still flowing, the cap was rinsed and used to seal the optical cell. Samples collected this way were not exposed to the atmosphere, and each cell was flushed with approximately three cell volumes of seawater. The samples were collected, taken into the lab, and rinsed with tap water to get rid of salt outside of the cells. The cells were dried and the optical windows were cleaned with Kimwipes. Samples were thermostatted at 25 (minus/plus 0.05) degrees Celsius in a custom made 36-position cell warmer. A custom macro program running on Agilent ChemStation was used to guide the measurements and data processing. The macro automated the procedures of sample input, blank and sample scans, quality control, and data archiving. The quality control steps included checking the baseline shift after dye injection and monitoring the standard deviation of multiple scans. Absorbance blanks were taken for each sample and 10 microliters of purified m-cresol purple (10 mmol/kg) were added for the analysis. pHT (total scale) was calculated according to Liu et al. (2011).; Replicate information: Duplicate pH samples were collected from discrete samples taken from the Niskin bottles (N = ~113) with a precision equal to minus/plus 0.0004. ; Standardization description: calibration-free; At what temperature was pH reported: 25degrees Celsius; Uncertainty: Precision was equal to minus/plus 0.0004. ; Quality flag convention: pH_QC, WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Liu, X.; Patsavas, M.C.; and Byrne, R. H. (2011). Purification and characterization of meta-cresol purple for spectrophotometric seawater pH measurements. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(11), 4862-4868. doi: 10.1021/es200665d; Researcher name: Mark Patsavas; Researcher institution: University of South Florida; PI: Robert Byrne.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD pressure; Abbreviation: Press (db); Unit: dbars; Observation type: profile; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Sea-Bird 9plus CTD; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: The Sea-Bird 9plus CTD uses a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. This high pressure transducer uses a quartz crystal resonator whose frequency of oscillation varies with pressure-induced stress measuring changes in pressure as small as 0.01 parts per million with an absolute range of 0 to 10,000 psia (0 to 6885 decibars). Also, a quartz crystal temperature signal is used to compensate for a wide range of temperature changes. Repeatability, hysteresis, and pressure conformance are 0.005% FS. The nominal pressure frequency (0 to full scale) is 34 to 38 kHz. The nominal temperature frequency is 172 kHz + 50 ppm/degrees Celsius. Data are acquired at 24 Hz. Discrete pressure data were averaged over an 8-second interval, minus/plus 4 seconds of the sample confirm bit. Periodic pressure sensor calibrations are performed at Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. No additional adjustments were applied.; Uncertainty: On deck pressure readings prior to each cast were within 1 dbar of calibration.; Researcher name: Kristene McTaggart; Researcher institution: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; PI: Gregory C. Johnson.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD temperature, ITS-90 scale; Abbreviation: CTD To ITS-90; Unit: degrees celsius, ITS-90 scale; Observation type: profile; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Sea-Bird 3 temperature sensor; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: The Sea-Bird temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside an 0.8 mm diameter thin-walled stainless steel tube. Exponentially related to temperature, the thermistor resistance is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit. The resulting sensor frequency is inversely proportional to the square root of the thermistor resistance and ranges from approximately 2 to 6 kHz, corresponding to temperatures from -5 to 35degrees Celsius. The 3plus temperature sensor has a typical accuracy/stability of 0.0002degrees Celsius per month; and resolution of 0.0002degrees Celsius at 24 Hz. Discrete temperature data were averaged over an 8-second interval, minus/plus 4 seconds of the sample confirm bit. An adjustment was made to the bias of the thermistors using a linear fit of the sensor drift history from calibration data taken over previous years, projected to the midpoint of the cruise. Also, a uniform viscous heating correction of -0.0006degrees Celsius was applied.; Uncertainty: Calibrations and checks with duplicate sensors suggest uncertainty on the order of minus/plus 0.001degrees Celsius. The viscous heating correction results in errors of no more than minus/plus 0.00015degrees Celsius for the full range of oceanographic temperature and salinity.; Researcher name: Kristene McTaggart; Researcher institution: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; PI: Gregory C. Johnson.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD salinity; Abbreviation: CTD Salt; Unit: 1978 Practical Salinity Scale; Observation type: profile; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Calculated from conductivity measurements.; Sampling instrument: Sea-Bird 4 conductivity sensor; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: The Sea-Bird conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Because the outer electrodes are connected together, electric fields are confined inside the cell. The cell resistance controls the output frequency of a Wien Bridge oscillator circuit. The sensor has a frequency output of approximately 3 to 12 kHz corresponding to conductivities from 0 to 7 Siemens/meter (0 to 70 mmho/cm). The conductivity sensor has a typical accuracy/stability of 0.0003 S/m per month, and resolution of 0.00004 S/m at 24 Hz. Discrete conductivity data were averaged over an 8-second interval, minus/plus 4 seconds of the sample confirm bit. An overall linear fit of CTD and bottle data, including a station-dependent slope and pressure bias, produced the best results for stations 1-79; an overall linear fit, including a pressure bias, produced the best results for stations 80-95. The fitting routine recursively throws out data greater than 2.8 standard deviations and returns a single conductivity bias and a conductivity slope for each station. A station-dependent slope coefficient best models the gradual shift in the conductivity sensor within each station grouping with time. A linear pressure term (modified beta) that is multiplied by CTD pressure and added to conductivity may also be warranted. The order of the polynomial was chosen to keep the standard deviation of each grouping to a minimum while avoiding fitting to fluctuations due to noise in standardizations of salinity sample runs. Discrete salinity values were derived from calibrated conductivity, temperature, and pressure measurements. ; Uncertainty: 71% of points were used in the fit of stations 1-79 with a standard deviation of 0.0030; 86% of points were used in the fit of stations 80-95 with a standard deviation of of 0.0024 mS/cm.; Quality flag convention: CTD_QC, WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Researcher name: Kristene McTaggart; Researcher institution: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; PI: Gregory C. Johnson.
  • Parameter or Variable: Bottle salinity; Abbreviation: bot salt; Unit: 1978 Practical Salinity Scale; Observation type: Profile; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Calculated from conductivity measurements.; Sampling instrument: 250 ml Kimax bottle; Analyzing instrument: Guildline Autosal, model 8400B salinometer (S/N 68807); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Niskin sample salinity measurements were made using Guildline 8400B Autosal salinometer s/n 68807 located in a container lab on the upper deck aft. Two samples were collected from each cast, one from the surface mixed layer and one from the deepest Niskin. Samples were collected in 200 ml Kimax high-alumina borosilicate bottles, sealed with custom clear plastic inserts and Nalgene caps, and externally rinsed with fresh water to reduce salt contamination. Salinity samples were allowed to equilibrate in an open tray on the counter next to the Autosal for a minimum of eight hours. A batch of samples was run roughly every third to fifth day of the cruise. A total of 186 sample salinity measurements were made during this cruise. The Autosal bath temperature was set to 21degrees Celsius. An air conditioner was mounted in the van to regulate temperature around 19-21degrees Celsius. Fluctuations were monitored using a wall-mounted thermometer. A logging thermometer recorded ambient temperature in 10-minute increments during a run, which usually remained stable to within 1degrees Celsius. Power to the Autosal was conditioned through a UPS to reduce noise in the readings. An Ocean Scientific Instruments interface box connected the Autosal to a laptop with ACI2003 software installed. After initiating the software program, a bottle of standard seawater (batch P147) was used to determine an offset correction to be applied to the following measurements. Each water sample was flushed through the Autosal's conductivity cell 3-5 times before taking the first reading. After waiting five seconds, ten seconds of 4 Hz data (40 values) were averaged for a conductivity ratio. Three corrected conductivity ratios were averaged and one salinity value was calculated for each water sample. After all samples were analyzed, a second bottle of standard seawater was run. A linear fit with time between the pre and post standards was found and the slope and offset was applied to all samples run. A dilute solution of Triton-X surfactant was flushed through the cell at the end of each session, followed by 400 ml distilled water. Distilled water remained in the cell between uses. 186 discrete salinity samples were run to validate CTD observations. ; Quality flag convention: Bot_Salt_QC, WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Researcher name: Kristene McTaggart; Researcher institution: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; PI: Gregory C. Johnson.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD oxygen; Abbreviation: CTD OXY (umol/kg); Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: profile; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Sea-Bird 43 oxygen sensor; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: The Sea-Bird oxygen sensor uses an electrochemical cell that is constantly polarized. The sensor is temperature compensated using special temperature sensing and an internal microcomputer. The interface electronics reports voltages for oxygen current only. A linear equation of the form I=mV+b, where m=1.0e-6 and b=0.0, yields sensor current as a function of sensor output voltage. The sensor has a thermal time constant of approximately 2.5 seconds; and an oxygen response time constant that is temperature dependent, increasing with cooler temperatures, ranging from 2 to 12 seconds. Hysteresis between the down and up oxygen profiles at deep stations warranted using the downcast oxygen data for calibration, matched by potential density anomalies referenced to the closest 1000-m interval. An overall least squares fit was determined for the single oxygen sensor used during this cruise.; Uncertainty: 85% of points were used in the fit with a standard deviation of 2.3679 umol/kg.; Researcher name: Kristene McTaggart; Researcher institution: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; PI: Gregory C. Johnson.
  • Parameter or Variable: bottle dissolved oxygen; Abbreviation: Bot O2umol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Brinkman Dosimat automated titrator; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: The analysis method is based upon the Carpenter (1965) whole flask titration of iodine, which is produced by an equivalent amount of dissolved oxygen. An automated titrator (Brinkman Dosimat) uses an amperometric end point detection as described by Culberson and Huang (1987) and modified for IBM-PC computers by Knapp et al. (1990). The nominal 125-ml iodine flasks are used for sampling are pre-calibrated so their volumes are precisely known. Samples were titrated within a few hours of being collected. 685 discrete oxygen samples were run to validate sensor O2 observations on the CTD package. ; Quality flag convention: Bot_O2_QC, WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Researcher name: Ann Swanson; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; PI: Burke Hales.
  • Parameter or Variable: Orthosilicic acid; Abbreviation: Silicateumol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Alpkem RFA 300; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Alpkem RFA 30 (Trade Mark) components were used for silicic acid, nitrate plus nitrite, and nitrite. All five of the macronutrients are analyzed simultaneously. Nutrient samples were collected in 30 ml HDPE bottles and were generally analyzed within a few hours of their collection. Samples were kept refrigerated until they were analyzed. The Silicic Acid method is based on that of Armstrong et al. (1967) as adapted by Atlas et al. (1971). Addition of an acidic molybdate reagent forms silicomolybdic acid, which is then reduced by stannous chloride.; Researcher name: Joe Jennings; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; PI: Burke Hales.
  • Parameter or Variable: nitrate; Abbreviation: Nitrateumol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Alpkem RFA 300; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Alpkem RFA 300 (Trade Mark) components were used for silicic acid, nitrate plus nitrite, and nitrite. All five of the macronutrients are analyzed simultaneously. Nutrient samples were collected in 30 ml HDPE bottles and were generally analyzed within a few hours of their collection. Samples were kept refrigerated until they were analyzed. The nitrate + nitrite analysis uses the basic method of Armstrong et al. (1967), with modifications to improve the precision and ease of operation. Sulfanilamide and N-(1-Napthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride react with nitrite to form a colored diazo compound. For the nitrate + nitrite analysis, nitrate is first reduced to nitrite using an OTCR and imidazole buffer as described by Patton (1983). Nitrite analysis is performed on a separate channel, omitting the cadmium reductor and the buffer. ; Researcher name: Joe Jennings; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; PI: Burke Hales.
  • Parameter or Variable: nitrite; Abbreviation: Nitriteumol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Alpkem RFA 300; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Alpkem RFA 30 (Trade Mark) components were used for silicic acid, nitrate plus nitrite, and nitrite. All five of the macronutrients are analyzed simultaneously. Nutrient samples were collected in 30 ml HDPE bottles and were generally analyzed within a few hours of their collection. Samples were kept refrigerated until they were analyzed. The nitrate + nitrite analysis uses the basic method of Armstrong et al. (1967), with modifications to improve the precision and ease of operation. Sulfanilamide and N-(1-Napthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride react with nitrite to form a colored diazo compound. For the nitrate + nitrite analysis, nitrate is first reduced to nitrite using an OTCR and imidazole buffer as described by Patton (1983). Nitrite analysis is performed on a separate channel, omitting the cadmium reductor and the buffer. ; Researcher name: Joe Jennings; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; PI: Burke Hales.
  • Parameter or Variable: phosphate; Abbreviation: Phosphateumol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Alpkem RFA 300; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Technicon AutoAnalyzer II (Trade Mark) components were used to measure phosphate and ammonium. All five of the macronutrients are analyzed simultaneously. Nutrient samples were collected in 30 ml HDPE bottles and were generally analyzed within a few hours of their collection. Samples were kept refrigerated until they were analyzed. The nitrate + nitrite analysis uses the basic method of Armstrong et al. (1967), with modifications to improve the precision and ease of operation. Sulfanilamide and N-(1-Napthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride react with nitrite to form a colored diazo compound. For the nitrate + nitrite analysis, nitrate is first reduced to nitrite using an OTCR and imidazole buffer as described by Patton (1983). Nitrite analysis is performed on a separate channel, omitting the cadmium reductor and the buffer. ; Researcher name: Joe Jennings; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; PI: Burke Hales.
  • Parameter or Variable: ammonia; Abbreviation: Ammoniaumol/kg; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Discrete measurements from samples collected on CTD casts; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Alpkem RFA 300; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Technicon AutoAnalyzer II (Trade Mark) components were used to measure phosphate and ammonium. All five of the macronutrients are analyzed simultaneously. Nutrient samples were collected in 30 ml HDPE bottles and were generally analyzed within a few hours of their collection. Samples were kept refrigerated until they were analyzed. The nitrate + nitrite analysis uses the basic method of Armstrong et al. (1967), with modifications to improve the precision and ease of operation. Sulfanilamide and N-(1-Napthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride react with nitrite to form a colored diazo compound. For the nitrate + nitrite analysis, nitrate is first reduced to nitrite using an OTCR and imidazole buffer as described by Patton (1983). Nitrite analysis is performed on a separate channel, omitting the cadmium reductor and the buffer. ; Researcher name: Joe Jennings; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; PI: Burke Hales.
  • Parameter or Variable: chlorophyll concentration in sea water; Abbreviation: Chlorophyll a concentration ug/L; Unit: microgram per liter; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin Bottle; Analyzing instrument: Turner Designs Fluorometer; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: 100 ml was filtered from water samples that were collected at the surface, the depth of the chlorophyll maximum, and at 30 m for extracted Chlorophyll-a. Chlorophyll-a is extracted from glass-fiber filters in 90% acetone then quantified using a Turner Designs Fluorometer. 148 values were reported to the database.; Researcher name: Jennifer Fisher; Researcher institution: Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, William T Peterson.
  • Parameter or Variable: Particulate Nitrogen Concentration; Abbreviation: PON umol/L; Unit: micromol/L; Observation type: near-surface profile; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin Bottle; Analyzing instrument: NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: POC and PON were typically collected from the Niskin bottles at three depths on each cast (surface, chl max, and bottom boundary layer - nearest the bed). A description of this method can be found at Holser et al, 2011. A discussion of the results was given at Ocean Sciences, Welch et al 2011. In the case of the Niskin samples, we analyzed sub-samples of filters for POC/PON analyses and the remaining fractions are being analyzed now for sterols. Analysis Procedure: For POC and PON analyses, water was sampled from dedicated Niskin bottles by emptying the contents of the bottle into carboys from the bottom (to avoid potential under sampling of settled particles. Large volume sub-samples of the water (1,000 to 8,000 mL), taken after mixing in a carboy, were filtered onto 47 mm 0.45 micron glass fiber filters under vacuum. Samples were placed in individual Petri dishes and kept frozen until analyses. Prior to analysis, filters were oven-dried at 60degrees Celsius overnight until no change in weight was measurable. The diameter of the sample filter area in each filter was measured with a caliper and an exact proportion of that area sub-sampled for elemental (carbon and nitrogen) analysis. Replicate (2-4) cuttings from each filter were used to obtain representative sub-samples for analyses. The area ratio of total vs. sub-sampled filter was used to calculate concentrations of measured constituents. Organic analysis comprised determination of total organic carbon and nitrogen contents by high-temperature combustion of acid-treated samples that were placed in silver boats (Goni et al., 2008; Holser et al., 2011). After acidification, samples were dried at 60degrees Celsius for 24-36h, placed into tin boats, and folded in preparation for analyses. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents were measured by flash combustion at 1020degrees Celsius using a NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc) and the instrumental setup of Verardo et al. (1990). A series of standards (L-cystine N:11.66%, C:29.99%, Atropine N:4.84%, C:70.56% and Goni Lab TM secondary low C standard N:0.119%, C:1.298%) and boat blanks were analyzed in each run to calibrate the analyzer response. We analyzed cuttings of blank, pre-combusted filters to determine carbon and nitrogen contents of the glass fiber and used to correct the contents of the filter samples. In all cases, the C contents of the blank filters were less than 5% of the sample signals whereas there was no measurable N in the blank filters. Analyses of replicate samples showed standard errors of less than 5% of measured value for both N and C. 257 values were reported to the database. ; Uncertainty: plus minus less than 5%; Researcher name: Miguel Goni; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.
  • Parameter or Variable: Particulate Organic Carbon Concentration; Abbreviation: POC umol/L; Unit: micromol/L; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin Bottle; Analyzing instrument: NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: POC and PON were typically collected from the Niskin bottles at three depths on each cast (surface, chl max, and bottom boundary layer - nearest the bed). A description of this method can be found at Holser et al, 2011. A discussion of the results was given at Ocean Sciences, Welch et al 2011. In the case of the Niskin samples, we analyzed sub-samples of filters for POC/PON analyses and the remaining fractions are being analyzed now for sterols. Analysis Procedure: For POC and PON analyses, water was sampled from dedicated Niskin bottles by emptying the contents of the bottle into carboys from the bottom (to avoid potential under sampling of settled particles. Large volume sub-samples of the water (1,000 to 8,000 mL), taken after mixing in a carboy, were filtered onto 47 mm 0.45 micron glass fiber filters under vacuum. Samples were placed in individual Petri dishes and kept frozen until analyses. Prior to analysis, filters were oven-dried at 60degrees Celsius overnight until no change in weight was measurable. The diameter of the sample filter area in each filter was measured with a caliper and an exact proportion of that area sub-sampled for elemental (carbon and nitrogen) analysis. Replicate (2-4) cuttings from each filter were used to obtain representative sub-samples for analyses. The area ratio of total vs. sub-sampled filter was used to calculate concentrations of measured constituents. Organic analysis comprised determination of total organic carbon and nitrogen contents by high-temperature combustion of acid-treated samples that were placed in silver boats (Goni et al., 2008; Holser et al., 2011). After acidification, samples were dried at 60degrees Celsius for 24-36h, placed into tin boats, and folded in preparation for analyses. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents were measured by flash combustion at 1020degrees Celsius using a NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc) and the instrumental setup of Verardo et al. (1990). A series of standards (L-cystine N:11.66%, C:29.99%, Atropine N:4.84%, C:70.56% and Goni Lab TM secondary low C standard N:0.119%, C:1.298%) and boat blanks were analyzed in each run to calibrate the analyzer response. We analyzed cuttings of blank, pre-combusted filters to determine carbon and nitrogen contents of the glass fiber and used to correct the contents of the filter samples. In all cases, the C contents of the blank filters were less than 5% of the sample signals whereas there was no measurable N in the blank filters. Analyses of replicate samples showed standard errors of less than 5% of measured value for both N and C. 257 values were reported to the database. ; Uncertainty: plus minus less than 5%; Researcher name: Miguel Goni; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.
  • Parameter or Variable: Particulate Organic Carbon : Particulate Nitrogen ratio; Abbreviation: POC/PON mol/mol; Unit: mole/mole; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin Bottle; Analyzing instrument: NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: POC and PON were typically collected from the Niskin bottles at three depths on each cast (surface, chl max, and bottom boundary layer - nearest the bed). A description of this method can be found at Holser et al, 2011. A discussion of the results was given at Ocean Sciences, Welch et al 2011. In the case of the Niskin samples, we analyzed sub-samples of filters for POC/PON analyses and the remaining fractions are being analyzed now for sterols. Analysis Procedure: For POC and PON analyses, water was sampled from dedicated Niskin bottles by emptying the contents of the bottle into carboys from the bottom (to avoid potential under sampling of settled particles. Large volume sub-samples of the water (1,000 to 8,000 mL), taken after mixing in a carboy, were filtered onto 47 mm 0.45 micron glass fiber filters under vacuum. Samples were placed in individual Petri dishes and kept frozen until analyses. Prior to analysis, filters were oven-dried at 60degrees Celsius overnight until no change in weight was measurable. The diameter of the sample filter area in each filter was measured with a caliper and an exact proportion of that area sub-sampled for elemental (carbon and nitrogen) analysis. Replicate (2-4) cuttings from each filter were used to obtain representative sub-samples for analyses. The area ratio of total vs. sub-sampled filter was used to calculate concentrations of measured constituents. Organic analysis comprised determination of total organic carbon and nitrogen contents by high-temperature combustion of acid-treated samples that were placed in silver boats (Goni et al., 2008; Holser et al., 2011). After acidification, samples were dried at 60degrees Celsius for 24-36h, placed into tin boats, and folded in preparation for analyses. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents were measured by flash combustion at 1020degrees Celsius using a NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc) and the instrumental setup of Verardo et al. (1990). A series of standards (L-cystine N:11.66%, C:29.99%, Atropine N:4.84%, C:70.56% and Goni Lab TM secondary low C standard N:0.119%, C:1.298%) and boat blanks were analyzed in each run to calibrate the analyzer response. We analyzed cuttings of blank, pre-combusted filters to determine carbon and nitrogen contents of the glass fiber and used to correct the contents of the filter samples. In all cases, the C contents of the blank filters were less than 5% of the sample signals whereas there was no measurable N in the blank filters. Analyses of replicate samples showed standard errors of less than 5% of measured value for both N and C. 257 values were reported to the database. ; Uncertainty: plus minus less than 5%; Researcher name: Miguel Goni; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.
  • Parameter or Variable: Particulate Organic Nitrogen concentration; Abbreviation: PON umol/kg; Unit: micromoles per kilogram; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin Bottle; Analyzing instrument: NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: POC and PON were typically collected from the Niskin bottles at three depths on each cast (surface, chl max, and bottom boundary layer - nearest the bed). A description of this method can be found at Holser et al, 2011. A discussion of the results was given at Ocean Sciences, Welch et al 2011. In the case of the Niskin samples, we analyzed sub-samples of filters for POC/PON analyses and the remaining fractions are being analyzed now for sterols. Analysis Procedure: For POC and PON analyses, water was sampled from dedicated Niskin bottles by emptying the contents of the bottle into carboys from the bottom (to avoid potential under sampling of settled particles. Large volume sub-samples of the water (1,000 to 8,000 mL), taken after mixing in a carboy, were filtered onto 47 mm 0.45 micron glass fiber filters under vacuum. Samples were placed in individual Petri dishes and kept frozen until analyses. Prior to analysis, filters were oven-dried at 60degrees Celsius overnight until no change in weight was measurable. The diameter of the sample filter area in each filter was measured with a caliper and an exact proportion of that area sub-sampled for elemental (carbon and nitrogen) analysis. Replicate (2-4) cuttings from each filter were used to obtain representative sub-samples for analyses. The area ratio of total vs. sub-sampled filter was used to calculate concentrations of measured constituents. Organic analysis comprised determination of total organic carbon and nitrogen contents by high-temperature combustion of acid-treated samples that were placed in silver boats (Goni et al., 2008; Holser et al., 2011). After acidification, samples were dried at 60degrees Celsius for 24-36h, placed into tin boats, and folded in preparation for analyses. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents were measured by flash combustion at 1020degrees Celsius using a NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc) and the instrumental setup of Verardo et al. (1990). A series of standards (L-cystine N:11.66%, C:29.99%, Atropine N:4.84%, C:70.56% and Goni Lab TM secondary low C standard N:0.119%, C:1.298%) and boat blanks were analyzed in each run to calibrate the analyzer response. We analyzed cuttings of blank, pre-combusted filters to determine carbon and nitrogen contents of the glass fiber and used to correct the contents of the filter samples. In all cases, the C contents of the blank filters were less than 5% of the sample signals whereas there was no measurable N in the blank filters. Analyses of replicate samples showed standard errors of less than 5% of measured value for both N and C. 257 values were reported to the database. ; Uncertainty: plus minus less than 5%; Researcher name: Miguel Goni; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.
  • Parameter or Variable: Particulate Organic Carbon Concentration; Abbreviation: POC umol/kg; Unit: micromoles per kilogram; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin Bottle; Analyzing instrument: NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: POC and PON were typically collected from the Niskin bottles at three depths on each cast (surface, chl max, and bottom boundary layer - nearest the bed). A description of this method can be found at Holser et al, 2011. A discussion of the results was given at Ocean Sciences, Welch et al 2011. In the case of the Niskin samples, we analyzed sub-samples of filters for POC/PON analyses and the remaining fractions are being analyzed now for sterols. Analysis Procedure: For POC and PON analyses, water was sampled from dedicated Niskin bottles by emptying the contents of the bottle into carboys from the bottom (to avoid potential under sampling of settled particles. Large volume sub-samples of the water (1,000 to 8,000 mL), taken after mixing in a carboy, were filtered onto 47 mm 0.45 micron glass fiber filters under vacuum. Samples were placed in individual Petri dishes and kept frozen until analyses. Prior to analysis, filters were oven-dried at 60degrees Celsius overnight until no change in weight was measurable. The diameter of the sample filter area in each filter was measured with a caliper and an exact proportion of that area sub-sampled for elemental (carbon and nitrogen) analysis. Replicate (2-4) cuttings from each filter were used to obtain representative sub-samples for analyses. The area ratio of total vs. sub-sampled filter was used to calculate concentrations of measured constituents. Organic analysis comprised determination of total organic carbon and nitrogen contents by high-temperature combustion of acid-treated samples that were placed in silver boats (Goni et al., 2008; Holser et al., 2011). After acidification, samples were dried at 60degrees Celsius for 24-36h, placed into tin boats, and folded in preparation for analyses. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents were measured by flash combustion at 1020degrees Celsius using a NC2500 elemental analyzer (CE Instruments) controlled by the EAS Clarity software (Costech analytical technologies Inc) and the instrumental setup of Verardo et al. (1990). A series of standards (L-cystine N:11.66%, C:29.99%, Atropine N:4.84%, C:70.56% and Goni Lab TM secondary low C standard N:0.119%, C:1.298%) and boat blanks were analyzed in each run to calibrate the analyzer response. We analyzed cuttings of blank, pre-combusted filters to determine carbon and nitrogen contents of the glass fiber and used to correct the contents of the filter samples. In all cases, the C contents of the blank filters were less than 5% of the sample signals whereas there was no measurable N in the blank filters. Analyses of replicate samples showed standard errors of less than 5% of measured value for both N and C. 257 values were reported to the database. ; Researcher name: Miguel Goni; Researcher institution: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.
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Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • spectrophotometer
Platform
  • WECOMA
Last Modified: 2018-05-15T20:09:19
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