The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774)

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Version 5 of the Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a global, 4 km, sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics dataset for 1982-01-02 to 2012-12-28. The CoRTAD contains weekly-averaged SSTs, SST anomaly (SSTA, weekly SST minus weekly climatological SST), thermal stress anomaly (TSA, weekly SST minus the maximum weekly climatological SST), SSTA Degree Heating Week (SSTA_DHW, sum of previous 12 weeks when SSTA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C), SSTA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that SSTA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C), TSA DHW (TSA_DHW, also known as a Degree Heating Week, sum of previous 12 weeks when TSA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C), and TSA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that TSA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C). In addition, the CoRTAD includes ancillary sea ice concentration and marine wind speed data.

These data are the fifth in the series of CoRTAD datasets originally created in association with Elizabeth Selig (Director, Marine Science, Conservation International) and John Bruno (University of North Carolina; UNC - Chapel Hill). This dataset is based on the Pathfinder V5.2 dataset, and is created with support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program.
  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth S.; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Zhang, Dexin; Saha, Korak; Krishnan, Ajay; McMichael, Elizabeth (2015). The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774). Version 1.1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5CZ3545 [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0126774
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Distribution Formats
  • netCDF (Version: 4)
Ordering Instructions Data may be searched and downloaded using online services provided by NCEI using the online resource URLs in this record. Contact NCEI Information Services for custom orders. When requesting data from NCEI, the desired data set may be referred to by the unique package identification number listed in this metadata record.
Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Information Services
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 1982-01-02 to 2012-12-28
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90
S: -90
E: 180
W: -180
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
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  • Descriptive Information
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Associated Resources
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2015-04-28
Edition 1.1
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
[Text below adapted from: Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey, and J.F. Bruno (2010). New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x. Hereafter referred to as "SCB2010".]

The CoRTAD was developed using 1982-2012 data from the Pathfinder Version 5.2 collection (Casey et al., 2011) produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (http://pathfinder.nodc.noaa.gov). These sea surface temperature data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and are processed to a resolution of approximately 4.6 km at the equator. These data have the highest resolution covering the longest time period of any satellite-based ocean temperature dataset. Daytime and nighttime data were averaged weekly using data with a quality flag of 4 or better. This level is a commonly accepted cutoff for "good" data (Kilpatrick et al., 2001, Casey and Cornillon, 1999). Previous versions of CoRTAD (versions 1-3) also incorporated pixels up to 5 degrees warmer than a course resolution reference SST based on the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (Weekly, 1-degree OISST version 2.0). Since Pathfinder Version 5.2 already uses a finer resolution reference field (25 km Daily OISST) this additional step was not incorporated here in CoRTAD Version 5, or in the previous CoRTAD Version 4 (Casey et al., 2012). These processes resulted in a weekly SST dataset that is roughly 80% gap free. To create a gap-free dataset for analysis, 3 x 3 pixel median spatial fill was used. A temporal fill was then performed using the nonlinear least squares data fitting (Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) in SLATEC Common Mathematical Library (in public domain) to fill the remaining gaps. This conservative approach was chosen because it provided interpolated SSTs that are bounded by the nearest available values in time. It also used data from only a very limited spatial domain, which is an important consideration given the variability of coral reef environments. Using these gap-filled data, we then created site-specific climatologies for each reef grid cell to describe long-term temperature patterns over the 31-year dataset. The climatology was generated using a harmonic analysis procedure that fits annual and semi-annual signals to the time series of weekly SSTs at each grid cell:
climSST(t) = A*cos(2pi*t + B) + C*cos(4pi*t + D) + E (1)
where t is time, A and B are coefficients representing the annual amplitude and phase, C and D are the semi-annual amplitude and phase, and E is the long-term temperature mean. Others have used similar approaches for generating climatologies because they are more robust than simple averaging techniques, which can be more susceptible to data gaps from periods of cloudiness (Podesta et al., 1991, Mesias et al., 2007). Please note in both CoRTAD Versions 4 and 5, a gap exists in the Pathfinder 5.2 dataset from 1994 day 275 to 1995 day 17 since Level 1B GAC data from NOAA-9 is not available from the NOAA archives. For these 3.5 months SST has been interpolated from Pathfinder 5.0 and 0.17K is subtracted to transform the data to the skin temperature basis of Pathfinder Version 5.2. In CoRTAD Version 5, the data are not stored in separate geographic tiles like in Version 4 and earlier. Instead, each data file contains the entire global coverage for a related grouping of CoRTAD parameters.


Following are the version changes at glance:
Version 5, 1982-01-02 - 2012-12-28, Global 4320x8640x1617 netCDF-4.1.2
Version 4, 1981-10-31 - 2010-12-31, Global 4320x8640, Tile 540x540, netCDF-4 Classic
Version 3, 1982-01-01 - 2009-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5
Version 2, 1982-01-01 - 2008-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5
Version 1, 1985-01-01 - 2005-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF4
NODC Accession Numbers: v3 0068999; v2 0054501; v1 0044419
Purpose To provide sea surface temperature data and related thermal stress parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy, and fine spatial resolution. The CoRTAD is intended primarily for climate and ecosystem related applications and studies and was designed specifically to address questions concerning the relationship between coral disease and bleaching and temperature stress.
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth S.; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Zhang, Dexin; Saha, Korak; Krishnan, Ajay; McMichael, Elizabeth (2015). The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774). Version 1.1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5CZ3545 [access date]
Cited Authors
  • Casey, Kenneth S.
  • Selig, Elizabeth R.
  • Zhang, Dexin
  • Saha, Korak
  • Krishnan, Ajay
  • McMichael, Elizabeth
Contributors
Resource Providers
Publishers
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
  • Numeric Data Sets > Oceanography
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Coastal Habitat
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS > WIND SPEED
  • EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > COASTAL
  • EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > REEF > CORAL REEF
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Climate Indicators
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE > ICE EXTENT
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • NOAA-11 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11
  • NOAA-14 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
  • NOAA-16 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
  • NOAA-17 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17
  • NOAA-18 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-18
  • NOAA-19 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-19
  • NOAA-7 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-7
  • NOAA-9 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-9
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • AVHRR-2 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2
  • AVHRR-3 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS CoRIS Place Thesaurus
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands (09N168E0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Micronesia > Micronesia (07N150E0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Northern Mariana Islands > Northern Mariana Islands > Northern Mariana Islands ( CNMI ) (18N146E0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Palau > Palau > Palau ( Belau ) (07N134E0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > American Samoa (14S170W0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Guam > Guam (13N144E0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Navassa Island > Navassa Island > Navassa Island (18N075W0001)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Texas > West Flower Garden Banks (27N093W0002)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > U. S. Virgin Islands > U. S. Virgin Islands > U. S. Virgin Islands (17N064W0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean
  • OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea > Navassa Island > Navassa Island > Navassa Island (18N075W0001)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea > Virgin Islands > Lesser Antilles > U. S. Virgin Islands (17N064W0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Gulf of Mexico > Florida
  • OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida
  • OCEAN BASIN > Indian Ocean
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands (09N168E0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Carolines > Micronesia (07N150E0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Carolines > Palau ( Belau ) (07N134E0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Guam > Guam (13N144E0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Mariana Archipelago > Northern Mariana Islands ( CNMI ) (18N146E0000)
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL OCEAN
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CRCP Project
  • 2068
  • 513
  • C047 The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database
  • The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Casey, Kenneth S.; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Zhang, Dexin; Saha, Korak; Krishnan, Ajay; McMichael, Elizabeth (2015). The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774). Version 1.1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5CZ3545 [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
  • Digital data may be downloaded from NCEI at no charge in most cases. For custom orders of digital data or to obtain a copy of analog materials, please contact NCEI Information Services for information about current fees.
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-28T03:49:55 - NCEI Accession 0126774 v1.1 was published.
Output Datasets
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • AVHRR-2
  • AVHRR-3
Platform
  • NOAA-11
  • NOAA-14
  • NOAA-16
  • NOAA-17
  • NOAA-18
  • NOAA-19
  • NOAA-7
  • NOAA-9
Last Modified: 2018-09-17T20:22:42
For questions about the information on this page, please email: NODC.DataOfficer@noaa.gov