Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands: Synthesized physical and biological data offshore of the Main Hawaiian Islands from 1891-01-01 to 2015-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0155189)


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            title:  Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands: Synthesized physical and biological data offshore of the Main Hawaiian Islands from 1891-01-01 to 2015-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0155189)
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                date:  2016-08-29
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                  Anchor:  DOI 10.7289/v56h4fg9
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                individualName:  Jeffrey Drazen
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                individualName:  Virginia Moriwake
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/231 University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM)
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                        city:  Honolulu
                        administrativeArea:  HI
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                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Jade Delevaux
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                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
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                        city:  Honolulu
                        administrativeArea:  HI
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                        country:  USA
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            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Denise Parker
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                    address:  (CI_Address)
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                        administrativeArea:  HI
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                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Shawn Murakawa
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                    address:  (CI_Address)
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                individualName:  Simon J. Pittman
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                        country:  GBR
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Robin W. Baird
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                        administrativeArea:  WA
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                individualName:  Lisa T. Ballance
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/608 US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS/SWFSC)
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                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
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                individualName:  Jay Barlow
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/608 US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS/SWFSC)
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                individualName:  Elizabeth A. Becker
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/608 US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS/SWFSC)
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                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
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                individualName:  Karin A. Forney
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/608 US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS/SWFSC)
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  (858) 546-7096
                    address:  (CI_Address)
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                        city:  LA JOLLA
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                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Marie C. Hil
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/231 University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM)
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        city:  Honolulu
                        administrativeArea:  HI
                        postalCode:  96822
                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Joseph Mobley
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/231 University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM)
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        city:  Honolulu
                        administrativeArea:  HI
                        postalCode:  96822
                        country:  USA
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) collaborator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Erin M. Oleson
                organisationName:  NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Protected Species Division, Cetacean Research Program
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        city:  Honolulu
                        administrativeArea:  HI
                        country:  USA
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            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Kenady Wilson
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/298 Duke University
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
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                        deliveryPoint:  DEPT. OF GEOLOGY BOX 6665 COLLEGE STATION
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                        administrativeArea:  NC
                        postalCode:  27708
                        country:  USA
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                individualName:  Kenady Wilson
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                        voice:  206) 526-4045
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                        city:  Seattle
                        administrativeArea:  WA
                        postalCode:  98115-6349
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  nmml.information@noaa.gov
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                individualName:  Charles L. Littnan
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                        administrativeArea:  HI
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                individualName:  Lisa T. Ballance
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/983 University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
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                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  scrippsnews@ucsd.edu
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                individualName:  Trevor Joyce
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                        country:  USA
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                individualName:  Costa, Bryan
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                individualName:  Kendall, Matthew
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        abstract:  This accession contains analyses and data products used in a marine biogeographic assessment of the main Hawaiian Islands. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) regulates the leasing, construction and operation of renewable energy projects in federal waters, and is required to evaluate potential human, coastal and marine impacts from these projects. In 2013, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) partnered with BOEM to support their review of renewable energy lease requests offshore of the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Collaborations with a variety of local federal, state, academic and non-governmental organizations were crucial for this work. NCCOS compiled existing, readily-available spatial data and synthesized new products around the MHI, describing the physical and biological marine environment, benthic habitats, fishes, sea turtles, marine mammals, and seabirds. Analyses and data products were specifically tailored to meet BOEM’s needs, and to fit within BOEM’s framework of offshore lease blocks. Data products range from simple animal distribution maps to mathematical models depicting the predicted distributions of animals. For some animals, this assessment marks the first time that their space-use patterns were mapped or modeled in the MHI, and made available online. These datasets are one component of the larger BOEM and State of Hawai‘i processes to evaluate offshore renewable energy proposals around the MHI.
        purpose:  The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) partnered with NOAA's National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) to develop a comprehensive marine biogeographic assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). NCCOS compiled and synthesized readily-available spatial information describing the environment, benthic communities, fishes, sea turtles, marine mammals, and seabirds around the MHI. This assessment was conducted to inform BOEM’s renewable energy policy decisions in the MHI. The products developed during this assessment are intended to provide environmental context for proposed offshore renewable energy infrastructure, including anchors, cables and floating wind turbines. Having the most up-to-date and comprehensive biogeographic information is an important part of BOEM’s process to identify and fill critical data gaps, and to assess the potential direct and indirect impacts of renewable energy development on the surrounding marine ecosystems. Products from this assessment may also support coastal and ocean management efforts by other local, state and federal agencies working in the MHI.
        credit:  Funding Agency: US DOI; Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management - BOEM)
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                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
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              Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/seaname/details/132 Coastal Waters of Hawaii
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              Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/seaname/details/93 North Pacific Ocean
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            keyword:  oceanography
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                    date:  2012-09-15
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > FISH
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CETACEANS
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > REPTILES
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > BENTHIC
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
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                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
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            keyword:  Research Data Types > Derived Data Product
            keyword:  Research Data Types > Field Observation
            keyword:  Research Data Types > Geospatial
            keyword:  Research Data Types > Model
            keyword:  Research Priorities > Marine Spatial Ecology (MSE)
            keyword:  Research Topics > Coral Reefs
            keyword:  Research Topics > Ecological/Biological Characterization
            keyword:  Research Topics > Habitat Mapping
            keyword:  Research Topics > Predictive/Spatial Modeling
            keyword:  Research Topics > Remote Sensing
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
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                title:  NCCOS Keywords
                date: (inapplicable)
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            keyword:  Benthic habitat type
            keyword:  Bottom Temperature (Annual Mean)
            keyword:  Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE)
            keyword:  Coral richness (mean and by year)
            keyword:  Curvature Platform (Mean)
            keyword:  Curvature Profile (Mean)
            keyword:  Curvature Total (Mean)
            keyword:  Elevation
            keyword:  Environmental predictors
            keyword:  Euphotic Depth
            keyword:  Mesophotic
            keyword:  Number of species present/absence
            keyword:  Percent Biological Cover
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts 00540
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts 10320
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts 19004
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts 19010
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts 19013
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts 19340
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts 19380
            keyword:  Reef fish communities
            keyword:  Rugosity (Mean)
            keyword:  SST Anomaly Frequency (Summer/Winter Mean)
            keyword:  SST Front Frequency (Summer/Winter Mean)
            keyword:  SST Front Persistence (Summer/Winter Mean)
            keyword:  SST Front Strength (Summer/Winter Mean)
            keyword:  Seafloor Depth
            keyword:  Slope Rate of Change (Mean)
            keyword:  Thermal Stress Anomaly Frequency (Summer/Winter mean)
            keyword:  Upwelling
            keyword:  Waves
            keyword:  Wind Data (Summer/Winter Mean)
            keyword:  relative abundance
            keyword:  soft substrate
            keyword:  total species richness
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
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                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Acanthopathes
            keyword:  Anous minutus
            keyword:  Anous stolidus
            keyword:  Anthoptilum
            keyword:  Antipatharia
            keyword:  Antipathella
            keyword:  Antipathes
            keyword:  Aphanipathes
            keyword:  Balaenoptera borealis
            keyword:  Balaenoptera edeni
            keyword:  Balaenoptera physalus
            keyword:  Bamboo coral
            keyword:  Band rumped Storm Petrel
            keyword:  Basking locations
            keyword:  Bathypathes
            keyword:  Black Noddy
            keyword:  Black footed Albatross
            keyword:  Black winged Petrel
            keyword:  Blainville’s beaked whale
            keyword:  Blue gray Noddy
            keyword:  Brown Booby
            keyword:  Brown Noddy
            keyword:  Bryde’s whale
            keyword:  Bubblegum coral
            keyword:  Bulweria bulwerii
            keyword:  Bulwer’s Petrel
            keyword:  Calcaxonia
            keyword:  Calibelemnon
            keyword:  Caretta caretta
            keyword:  Chelonia mydas
            keyword:  Christmas Shearwater
            keyword:  Chrysopathes
            keyword:  Cirrhipathes
            keyword:  Common bottlenose dolphin
            keyword:  Cook’s Petrel
            keyword:  Corallium spp.
            keyword:  Cuvier’s beaked whale
            keyword:  Dendropathes
            keyword:  Dermochelys coriacea
            keyword:  Dwarf sperm whale
            keyword:  Enallopsammia rostrata
            keyword:  Eretmochelys imbricata
            keyword:  False killer whale
            keyword:  Feresa attenuata
            keyword:  Fin whale
            keyword:  Framework forming Scleractinia
            keyword:  Fraser’s dolphin
            keyword:  Fregata minor
            keyword:  Globicephala macrorhynchus
            keyword:  Gold corals
            keyword:  Gorgonian Alcyonacea
            keyword:  Grampus griseus
            keyword:  Great Frigatebird
            keyword:  Green turtles
            keyword:  Gygis alba
            keyword:  Hawaiian Petrel
            keyword:  Hawaiian monk seal
            keyword:  Hawksbill
            keyword:  Holaxonia
            keyword:  Humpback whale
            keyword:  Indopacetus pacificus
            keyword:  Isididae
            keyword:  Juan Fernandez Petrel
            keyword:  Killer whale
            keyword:  Kogia breviceps
            keyword:  Kogia sima
            keyword:  Kulamanamana haumeaae
            keyword:  Lagenodelphis hosei
            keyword:  Laysan Albatross
            keyword:  Leatherback
            keyword:  Leiopathes
            keyword:  Lepidochelys olivacea
            keyword:  Leptoseris spp.
            keyword:  Loggerhead
            keyword:  Longman’s beaked whale
            keyword:  Madracis kauaiensis
            keyword:  Madrepora oculata
            keyword:  Masked Booby
            keyword:  Megaptera novaeangliae
            keyword:  Melon headed whale
            keyword:  Mesoplodon densirostris
            keyword:  Montipora spp.
            keyword:  Mottled Petrel
            keyword:  Myriopathes
            keyword:  Neomonachus schauinslandi
            keyword:  Newell’s Shearwater
            keyword:  Non framework forming Scleractinia
            keyword:  Non gorgonian Alcyonacea includes Suborders Alcyoniina
            keyword:  Oceanodroma castro
            keyword:  Olive Ridley
            keyword:  Onychoprion fuscatus
            keyword:  Orcinus orca
            keyword:  Pantropical spotted dolphin
            keyword:  Paragorgiidae
            keyword:  Parantipathes
            keyword:  Pennatulacea
            keyword:  Peponocephala electra
            keyword:  Phaethon lepturus
            keyword:  Phaethon rubricauda
            keyword:  Phoebastria immutabilis
            keyword:  Phoebastria nigripes
            keyword:  Physeter macrocephalus
            keyword:  Porites spp.
            keyword:  Procelsterna cerulea
            keyword:  Pseudorca crassidens
            keyword:  Pterodroma cookii
            keyword:  Pterodroma externa
            keyword:  Pterodroma inexpectata
            keyword:  Pterodroma nigripennis
            keyword:  Pterodroma sandwichensis
            keyword:  Puffinus griseus
            keyword:  Puffinus nativitatis
            keyword:  Puffinus newelli
            keyword:  Puffinus pacificus
            keyword:  Pygmy killer whale
            keyword:  Pygmy sperm whale
            keyword:  Red and Pink Coral
            keyword:  Red footed Booby
            keyword:  Red tailed Tropicbird
            keyword:  Risso’s dolphin
            keyword:  Rough toothed dolphin
            keyword:  Scleractinia "bramble"
            keyword:  Scleraxonia
            keyword:  Sei whale
            keyword:  Short finned pilot whale
            keyword:  Sooty Shearwater
            keyword:  Sooty Tern
            keyword:  Sperm whale
            keyword:  Spinner dolphin
            keyword:  Stauropathes
            keyword:  Stenella attenuata
            keyword:  Stenella coeruleoalba
            keyword:  Stenella longirostris
            keyword:  Steno bredanensis
            keyword:  Stichopathes
            keyword:  Stolonifera
            keyword:  Stranding locations
            keyword:  Striped dolphin
            keyword:  Sula dactylatra
            keyword:  Sula leucogaster
            keyword:  Sula sula
            keyword:  Trissopathes
            keyword:  Tursiops truncatus
            keyword:  Turtle species
            keyword:  Umbellapathes
            keyword:  Wedge tailed Shearwater
            keyword:  White Tern
            keyword:  White tailed Tropicbird
            keyword:  Ziphius cavirostris
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Provider Species Keywords
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  AVHRR > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
            keyword:  CAMERA
            keyword:  MODIS > Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
            keyword:  VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
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                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
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            keyword:  BOTCAM
            keyword:  Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs)
            keyword:  Raster Navigational Charts
            keyword:  Ship Tracklines Multibeam SoNARs (1956 to 2009)
            keyword:  Ship Tracklines Multibeam SoNARs (1984 to 2014)
            keyword:  aerial survyes
            keyword:  remotely operated camera
            keyword:  telemetry tracking
            keyword:  visual land-based surveys
            keyword:  visual ship-based surveys
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Provider Keywords
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
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                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
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                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
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            keyword:  Research Geographic Areas > Coastal Ocean
            keyword:  Research Geographic Areas > Coral Reefs
            keyword:  Research Geographic Areas > Deep Sea
            keyword:  Research Locations > Marine Protected Areas > National Marine Monuments
            keyword:  Research Locations > Marine Protected Areas > National Marine Sanctuaries
            keyword:  Research Locations > Marine Protected Areas > National Parks
            keyword:  Research Locations > Regions > Hawaii
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NCCOS Location Keywords
                date: (inapplicable)
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            keyword:  Kaua'i
            keyword:  Maui Nui
            keyword:  O'ahu
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Provider Keywords
                date: (inapplicable)
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            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Costa, Bryan; Kendall, Matthew (2016). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands: Synthesized physical and biological data offshore of the Main Hawaiian Islands from 1891-01-01 to 2015-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0155189). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.7289/v56h4fg9. Accessed [date].
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                    date:  2016
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                            linkage: https://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5/TM-NOS-NCCOS-214
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                      Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/1452 US DOC; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
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        language:
          LanguageCode:  eng
        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) environment
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) biota
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                    beginPosition:  1891-01-01
                    endPosition:  2015-03-01
        supplementalInformation:  The state of Hawai‘i is working to develop local renewable energy sources to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Most of the State’s potential renewable energy resources (notably, wind) are located in federal waters from 3 to 200 nm offshore. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) regulates the leasing, construction and operation of renewable energy projects in federal waters, and is required to evaluate potential human, coastal and marine impacts from these projects. BOEM partnered with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) to gather biogeographic information in support of this evaluation around the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). The complexity of products from this assessment range from simple animal distribution maps to mathematical models depicting the predicted distributions of animals. Biogeographic analyses and data products were specifically tailored to meet BOEM’s needs, and designed to fit within BOEM’s framework of offshore lease blocks. This biogeographic assessment addresses three main questions: (1) how are select species or taxonomic groups distributed spatially and temporally around the MHI?; (2) what environmental conditions influence these distributions?; and (3) what significant gaps exist in our knowledge about the biogeography of the area? To answer these questions, readily-available spatial information was compiled and synthesized, including information on the physical and biological environment, benthic habitats, fishes, sea turtles, marine mammals, and seabirds. The assessment focused on federal waters and taxa that were: (1) more likely to interact with renewable energy infrastructure, (2) culturally significant, (3) legally protected, and/or (4) economically valuable. Collaborations with local managers, scientists, and experts from a variety of federal, state, academic and non-governmental organizations were crucial. These partners contributed their data, time and expertise, and many were contributing coauthors on the final report. The biogeography of the MHI is shaped by atmospheric and oceanographic conditions that operate at different temporal and spatial scales around the islands. Marine animals respond to these changing conditions in different ways. Some taxonomic groups and species use the same locations year round (e.g., on Penguin Bank or offshore of the Kona Coast, Hawaiʻi), while most taxa utilize different geographic areas at different times of the year. Understanding these spatial and temporal patterns is critical for marine spatial planning efforts. For some taxa, this marine biogeographic assessment marks the first time that their space-use patterns were mapped or modeled in the MHI, and the associated data compilation made available online. It establishes a baseline for assessing potential impacts, a guide for monitoring change, a roadmap for prioritizing how to fill data gaps, and a framework for integrating ocean research and management efforts moving forward. Submission Package ID: HJ6HF2
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0155189 v1.1 was published.
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                  DateTime:  2016-08-29T17:40:58Z
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                        title:  NCEI Accession 0155189 v1.1
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                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0155189 v1.1
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                description:  Data Type: Chapter 1: Introduction (calculated); Units: Varied; Observation Type: other; Sampling Instrument: Documentation only – no instrument type; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Property Type: Calculated; Units: Meters; Observation Category: Other; Sampling Instrument: Documentation only – no instrument type; Parameters: 1.Boundaries – Marine Managed Areas, De Facto Marine Managed Areas, Marine Managed Areas and Regulations, Project Area, Shoreline, Federal Waters, State Waters; 2.Elevation – Elevation, Elevation (Standard Deviation) 3.Raster Navigational Charts – 00540, 19004, 19010, 19013, 19320, 19340, 19380; Methods: See Costa, B.M., M.S. Kendall and G. Sanders. 2016. Chapter 1: Introduction. pp. 1-12. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.; Data Quality Information: See Costa, B.M., M.S. Kendall and G. Sanders. 2016. Chapter 1: Introduction. pp. 1-12. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Chapter 2: Environmental Setting (calculated); Units: varied; Observation Type: satellite, model output, other; Sampling Instrument: varied; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Property Type: Measured and Calculated; Units: Meters, meters/second, seconds, number of occurrences, degrees, percent, °Celsius, °Celsius per pixel, radians/meter2, radians/meter, steridians-1, miligrams/meter³, miligrams/meter³ per pixel, miligrams of Carbon/meter2/day; Observation Category: Satellite, Model output, Other. Sampling Instrument: QuikSCAT, MODIS Aqua, HYCOM + NCODA Global 1/12 Reanalysis, Aviso, GHRSST, MUR, AVHRR CORTAD v3, WW3, GEBCO, Coastal Relief Model, documentation only – no instrument type; Parameters: 1.Atmosphere – Wind Direction (Summer/Winter Circular Mean); Wind Divergence (Summer/Winter Mean); Wind Speed (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); Wind Speed in the East-West Direction(Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); Wind Speed in the North-South Direction (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); 2.Biological Oceanography - Chlorophyll-a Concentrations (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); Chlorophyll-a Front Frequency (Summer/Winter Mean); Chlorophyll-a Front Persistence (Summer/Winter Mean); Chlorophyll-a Front Strength (Summer/Winter Mean), NPP-Net Primary Productivity (Summer/Winter Mean); 3.Distance – Seamounts (100 to 2,750 m deep); Seamounts (100 to 4,500 m deep); Shelf Edge; Shoreline; Distance to Seamounts (100 to 2,750 m deep); Distance to Seamounts (100 to 4,500 m deep); Distance to Shelf Edge; Distance to Shoreline; 4.Physical Oceanography - a.Water Clarity: Euphotic Depth (Summer/Winter Mean); Turbidity at 547 nm (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); b.Water Height: Sea Surface Height Maps of Absolute Dynamic Topography (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); c.Water Movement: Bottom Current Direction (Annual Circular Mean); Bottom Current Speed (Annual Mean & Standard Deviation); Bottom Current Speed in the East-West Direction (Annual Mean); Bottom Current Speed in the North-South Direction (Annual Mean); Mixed Layer Depth (Summer/Winter Mean); Probability of Anti-cyclonic Eddy Rings (Summer/Winter Mean); Probability of Cyclonic Eddy Rings (Summer/Winter Mean); Probability of Eddy Rings (Summer/Winter Mean); Surface Current Direction (Summer/Winter Circular Mean); Surface Current Divergence (Summer/Winter Mean); Surface Current Speed (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); Surface Current Speed in the East-West Direction (Summer/Winter Mean); Surface Current Speed in the North-South Direction (Summer/Winter Mean); Surface Current Vorticity (Summer/Winter Mean); Upwelling (Summer/Winter Mean); d.Water Temperature: Bottom Temperature (Annual Mean); Sea Surface Temperature (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); SST Anomaly Frequency (Summer/Winter Mean); SST Front Frequency (Summer/Winter Mean); SST Front Persistence (Summer/Winter Mean); SST Front Strength (Summer/Winter Mean); Thermal Stress Anomaly Frequency (Summer/Winter Mean); e.Waves: Peak Period (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); Significant Height (Summer/Winter Mean & Standard Deviation); 5.Seafloor Depth – Depth; Depth Model; Depth Model Uncertainty (Difference); Depth Model Uncertainty (Standard Error); Depth Source (0 to 100 m); Depth Source (100 to 7,000 m); 6.Seafloor Surveys – Digital Depth Data (1900 to 2009); Ship Tracklines Multibeam SoNARs (1984 to 2014); Ship Tracklines Singlebeam SoNARs (1956 to 2009); 7.Seafloor Topography – Curvature Total (Mean); Curvature Planform (Mean); Curvature Profile (Mean); Depth (Mean & Standard Deviation); Rugosity (Mean); Slope (Mean); Slope Rate of Change (Mean); Methods: See Costa, B.M., M. Poti, A.J. Winship, P.I. Miller and J. Gove. 2016. Chapter 2: Environmental Setting. Pp. 13-56. In Costa, B.M. and M.S. Kendall. (eds.). 2016. Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. Silver Spring, MD. 359 pp.; Data Quality Information: See Costa, B.M., M. Poti, A.J. Winship, P.I. Miller and J. Gove. 2016. Chapter 2: Environmental Setting. Pp. 13-56. In Costa, B.M. and M.S. Kendall. (eds.). 2016. Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. Silver Spring, MD. 359 pp.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Chapter 3: Benthic Habitats (calculated); Units: varied; Observation Type: Satellite, model output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: varied; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Property Type: Measured and Calculated; Units: Benthic habitat type, percent biological cover, number of species, presence/absence, probability of occurrence, habitat suitability class, percent, degrees, meters, radians/meter2, radians/meter, °Celsius, centimeter/second, meter/second, miligrams/meter3, steridians-1, practical salinity unit (PSU); Observation Category: Satellite, model output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: SCUBA diver-based surveys; Remotely operated and towed cameras and vehicles; Aqua MODIS; HYCOM + NCODA Global 1/12 Reanalysis, documentation only – no instrument type; Parameters: 1.Shallow – a.Compiled habitat records: coral richness (mean and by year), biological cover (mean and by year); b.Benthic habitat map, benthic habitat video and photo locations (and key); 2.Mesophotic – a.Compiled survey records: presences and absences of Leptoseris spp., Porites spp., Montipora spp.; b.Environmental predictors: seafloor topography, geography, physical oceanography; c.Model predictions: probability of occurrence and standard error for Leptoseris spp., Porites spp., Montipora spp.; 3.Deep – a.Compiled survey records (and key): presences of Gold corals (Kulamanamana haumeaae); Framework-forming Scleractinia (includes Enallopsammia rostrata, Madracis kauaiensis, Madrepora oculata, Scleractinia “bramble”); Non-framework-forming Scleractinia (includes all Scleractinia identified at the family level that are not in Framework-forming Scleractinia); Antipatharia, shallow depth genera (30-100 m; includes Antipathes, Cirrhipathes); Antipatharia, mid-depth genera (100-300 m; includes Acanthopathes, Antipathella, Myriopathes, Stichopathes); Antipatharia, deep genera (>300 m; includes Aphanipathes, Bathypathes, Chrysopathes, Dendropathes, Leiopathes, Parantipathes, Stauropathes, Trissopathes, Umbellapathes); Pennatulacea, hard substrate (includes Anthoptilum and Calibelemnon); Pennatulacea, soft substrate (includes all Pennatulacea genera not in Pennatulacea, hard substrate); Non-gorgonian Alcyonacea (includes Suborders Alcyoniina, Stolonifera); Gorgonian Alcyonacea (includes Suborders Calcaxonia, Holaxonia, Scleraxonia); Calcaxonia; Bamboo coral (Isididae); Holaxonia; Scleraxonia; Red and Pink Coral (Corallium spp.); Bubblegum coral (Paragorgiidae); b.Environmental predictors: seafloor topography, geography, oceanography; c.Model predictions: classified habitat suitability likelihood and habitat suitability likelihood class variability for Gold corals (Kulamanamana haumeaae); Framework-forming Scleractinia (includes Enallopsammia rostrata, Madracis kauaiensis, Madrepora oculata, Scleractinia “bramble”); Non-framework-forming Scleractinia (includes all Scleractinia identified at the family level that are not in Framework-forming Scleractinia); Antipatharia, shallow depth genera (30-100 m; includes Antipathes, Cirrhipathes); Antipatharia, mid-depth genera (100-300 m; includes Acanthopathes, Antipathella, Myriopathes, Stichopathes); Antipatharia, deep genera (>300 m; includes Aphanipathes, Bathypathes, Chrysopathes, Dendropathes, Leiopathes, Parantipathes, Stauropathes, Trissopathes, Umbellapathes); Pennatulacea, hard substrate (includes Anthoptilum and Calibelemnon); Pennatulacea, soft substrate (includes all Pennatulacea genera not in Pennatulacea, hard substrate); Non-gorgonian Alcyonacea (includes Suborders Alcyoniina, Stolonifera); Gorgonian Alcyonacea (includes Suborders Calcaxonia, Holaxonia, Scleraxonia); Calcaxonia; Bamboo coral (Isididae); Holaxonia; Scleraxonia; Red and Pink Coral (Corallium spp.); Bubblegum coral (Paragorgiidae); 4 or more genera; 7 or more genera; Data Quality Information: Methods: See Bauer, L., M. Poti, B.M. Costa, D. Wagner, F. Parrish, M. Donovan, and B. Kinlan. 2016. Chapter 3: Benthic Habitats and Corals. pp. 57-136. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Chapter 4: Fishes (calculated); Units: varied; Observation Type: Model output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: varied; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Property Type: Measured and Calculated; Units: Pounds caught, number of trips per month, catch per unit effort (total pounds caught per trip), number of fish, number of people, relative abundance, number of species, grams/meter2, meters, degrees, radians per meter2, radians per meter, kilowatts per meter, percent, meters per hectare, coefficient of variation; Observation Category: Model output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: SCUBA diver-based surveys, Remotely operated camera (BOTCAM), Survey by State of Hawaiʻi, documentation only – no instrument type; Parameters: 1.Bottom fish – a.Compiled BotCam observations (within the BOEM lease block/aliquot system): BotCam sites, Species richness of Deep7, and Relative abundance of Deep7 on hard and soft substrate types; b.Compiled DAR fishery records (for bottom fish within DAR’s reporting framework): Reporting areas, deep-sea hand line (DSHL) fishing effort for bottom fish, total catch of Deep7, and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of Deep 7; 2.Reef fish communities – a.Compiled survey records: total species richness, total biomass, species richness of endemics, biomass of endemics, biomass of resource fish; b.Environmental predictors: Seafloor topography, geography, physical oceanography, benthic habitat composition; c.Reef fish predictions, maps & coefficient of variation: Total species richness, total biomass, species richness of endemics, biomass of endemics, biomass of resource fish divided into 4 island groups (Hawaiʻi, Kauaʻi, Maui Nui, and Oʻahu); 3.Ancillary datasets – Coral Reef Ecosystem Essential Fish Habitat (EFH), Bottom fish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH), Bottom fish Restricted Fishing Areas, Marine Life Conservation Districts and Fishery Management Areas, Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs); Methods: For bottom fish, see Siceloff, L., M.S. Kendall, R. Kokubun, J. Drazen, and V. Moriwake. 2016. Chapter 4: Fishes - Bottom Fish. pp. 137-155. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp. For reef fish, see Stamoulis, K.A., M. Poti, J.M.S. Delevaux, M.K. Donovan, A. Friedlander, and M.S. Kendall. 2016. Chapter 4: Fishes - Reef Fish. pp. 156-196. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.; Data Quality Information: See Siceloff, L., M.S. Kendall, R. Kokubun, J. Drazen, and V. Moriwake. 2016. Chapter 4: Fishes - Bottom Fish. pp. 137-155. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp; Stamoulis, K.A., M. Poti, J.M.S. Delevaux, M.K. Donovan, A. Friedlander, and M.S. Kendall. 2016. Chapter 4: Fishes - Reef Fish. pp. 156-196. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Chapter 5: Sea Turtles (calculated); Units: varied; Observation Type: in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: opportunistic surveys by public; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Property Type: Measured and Calculated; Units: turtle species, frequency, number of turtles, cause of stranding, number of people per kilometer squared per census tract, type of shoreline; Observation Category: In situ, other; Sampling Instrument: Visual land-based surveys, documentation only – no instrument type; Parameters: 1.Basking locations – Green turtles (Chelonia mydas); 2.Nesting locations - Green (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea)and Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea)turtles; 3.Stranding locations - Green (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Loggerhead (Caretta caretta)and Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea)turtles; 4.Ancillary datasets – U.S. Census Tracts & Human Population Density, Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Shoreline, Cliffs and Beaches; Methods: Roberson, K., M.S. Kendall, D. Parker, and S. Murakawa. pp. 197-224. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.; Data Quality Information: See Roberson, K., M.S. Kendall, D. Parker, and S. Murakawa. pp. 197-224. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Chapter 6: Marine Mammals (calculated); Units: varied; Observation Type: Modeled output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: varied; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Property Type: Measured and Calculated; Units: Presence/absence, relative abundance within 1.2x1.2 km spatial bin, coefficient of variation, detections per 1.2x1.2 km; Observation Category: Modeled output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: Visual ship-based and aerial surveys, telemetry tracking, documentation only – no instrument type; Parameters: 1.Cetacean sighting locations (Summer and/or Winter) – Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera edeni), Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), Dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), Fraser’s dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei), Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Killer whale (Orcinus orca), Longman’s beaked whale (Indopacetus pacificus), Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), Pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus), Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis), Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba); 2.Cetacean model predictions (Relative Abundance) (Summer and/or Winter) - Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris); 3.Cetacean model predictions (CV, Coefficient of Variation) (Summer and/or Winter) – Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris); 4.Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi) telemetry detection densities mapped within 1.2x1.2 km grid derived from 19 individual seals tracked between 2007 to 2014; 5.Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi) presences mapped within 5x5 km grid derived from sightings data recorded between 2007 to 2011; 6.Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi) critical terrestrial and marine habitats protected under the Endangered Species Act (1972); Methods: For cetaceans, see Pittman, S.J., A.J. Winship, M. Poti, B.P. Kinlan, J.B. Leirness, R.W. Baird, J. Barlow, E.A. Becker, K.A. Forney, M.C. Hill, P.I. Miller, J. Mobley and E.M. Oleson. 2016. Chapter 6: Marine Mammals - Cetaceans. pp. 227-265. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp. For Hawaiian Monk Seals, see Pittman, S.J., A.J. Winship, K. Wilson and C.L. Littnan. 2016. Chapter 6: Marine Mammals - Hawaiian Monk Seal. pp. 266-282. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359pp.; Data Quality Information: See Pittman, S.J., A.J. Winship, M. Poti, B.P. Kinlan, J.B. Leirness, R.W. Baird, J. Barlow, E.A. Becker, K.A. Forney, M.C. Hill, P.I. Miller, J. Mobley and E.M. Oleson. 2016. Chapter 6: Marine Mammals - Cetaceans. pp. 227-265. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp; Pittman, S.J., A.J. Winship, K. Wilson and C.L. Littnan. 2016. Chapter 6: Marine Mammals - Hawaiian Monk Seal. pp. 266-282. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359pp.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Chapter 7: Seabirds (calculated); Units: varied; Observation Type: Model output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: varied; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Property Type: Measured and Calculated; Units: Presence/absence, relative abundance within 1.2x1.2 km spatial bin, coefficient of variation; Observation Category: Model output, in situ, other; Sampling Instrument: Visual ship-based surveys, documentation only – no instrument type; Parameters: 1.Sighting locations (Summer and/or Winter) – Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma castro), Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), Black Noddy (Anous minutus), Black-winged Petrel (Pterodroma nigripennis), Blue-gray Noddy (Procelsterna cerulea), Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster), Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Bulwer’s Petrel (Bulweria bulwerii), Christmas Shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis), Cook’s Petrel (Pterodroma cookii), Great Frigatebird (Fregata minor), Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), Juan Fernandez Petrel (Pterodroma externa), Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis), Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), Mottled Petrel (Pterodroma inexpectata), Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus newelli), Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), Red-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda), Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus), Sooty Tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus), White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus), White Tern (Gygis alba); 2.Foraging range - Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), Black Noddy (Anous minutus), Blue-gray Noddy (Procelsterna cerulea), Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Great Frigatebird (Fregata minor), Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis), Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda); 3.Model predictions (Relative Density) - Black-winged Petrel (Pterodroma nigripennis), Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster), Bulwer’s Petrel (Bulweria bulwerii), Cook’s Petrel (Pterodroma cookii), Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), Juan Fernandez Petrel (Pterodroma externa), Mottled Petrel (Pterodroma inexpectata), Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus newelli), Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus), Sooty Tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus), White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus), White Tern (Gygis alba); 4.Model predictions (CV, Coefficient of Variation) – Black-winged Petrel (Pterodroma nigripennis), Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster), Bulwer’s Petrel (Bulweria bulwerii), Cook’s Petrel (Pterodroma cookii), Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), Juan Fernandez Petrel (Pterodroma externa), Mottled Petrel (Pterodroma inexpectata), Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus newelli), Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus), Sooty Tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus), White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus), White Tern (Gygis alba); Methods: See Winship, A.J., B.P. Kinlan, L.T. Ballance, T. Joyce, J.B. Leirness, B.M. Costa, M. Poti and P.I. Miller. 2016. Chapter 7: Seabirds. pp. 283-319. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.; Data Quality Information: See Winship, A.J., B.P. Kinlan, L.T. Ballance, T. Joyce, J.B. Leirness, B.M. Costa, M. Poti and P.I. Miller. 2016. Chapter 7: Seabirds. pp. 283-319. In: B.M. Costa and M.S. Kendall (eds.). Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214. 359 pp.
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR
            type:  AVHRR
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer A meteorological satellite [instrument] with two bands that is used for large area Earth observation at 1 km spatial resolution. Source: Glossary of GIS and Remote Sensing Terms, University of Vermont. (http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/tws-gis/glossary.htm; last accessed on 09/22/2004). Specifically, this instrument type is to be used to represent AVHRR/1: "There are two series of AVHRR instruments. Built by ITT Aerospace/Optical Division in the mid 1970s, the AVHRR/1 is a four-channel, filter-wheel spectrometer/radiometer (Appendix) while the AVHRR/2, built in the early 1980s, is identical except for the addition of Channel 5." See https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ecosys/cdroms/AVHRR97_d1/avhrr3.htm
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  camera
            type:  camera
            description:  An instrument for recording images.
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  MODIS
            type:  MODIS
            description:  Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth is timed so that it passes from north to south across the equator in the morning, while Aqua passes south to north over the equator in the afternoon. Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS are viewing the entire Earth's surface every 1 to 2 days, acquiring data in 36 spectral bands, or groups of wavelengths (see MODIS Technical Specifications). MODIS Technical Specifications Orbit: 705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node (Terra) or 1:30 p.m. ascending node (Aqua), sun-synchronous, near-polar, circular Scan Rate: 20.3 rpm, cross track Swath Dimensions: 2330 km (cross track) by 10 km (along track at nadir) Telescope: 17.78 cm diam. off-axis, afocal (collimated), with intermediate field stop Size: 1.0 x 1.6 x 1.0 m Weight: 228.7 kg Power: 162.5 W (single orbit average) Data Rate: 10.6 Mbps (peak daytime); 6.1 Mbps (orbital average) Quantization: 12 bits Spatial Resolution: 250 m (bands 1-2); 500 m (bands 3-7); 1000 m (bands 8-36) Design Life: 6 years (From: http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/about/index.html)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  swimmer/diver
            type:  swimmer/diver
            description:  not an instrument - use as observation type
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  visual observation
            type:  visual observation
            description:  not an instrument - maybe an observation type