Hypoxia and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) in Padilla Bay, WA from 2014-07-09 to 2014-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0156596)


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            title:  Hypoxia and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) in Padilla Bay, WA from 2014-07-09 to 2014-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0156596)
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                date:  2016-10-18
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                  Anchor:  NCEI Accession Number gov.noaa.nodc:0156596
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        abstract:  Hypoxia has the potential to be a stressor to eelgrass as it can lead to tissue anoxia at night. These tissues then must undergo anaerobic metabolism, which is less energetically efficient and can produce toxic byproducts. Hypoxia may also work in synergy with other stressors, such as sediment pore-water sulfide. Hypoxia can facilitate the intrusion of sulfide, a known phytotoxin, into eelgrass tissues. This study examined the interaction between sulfide and hypoxia on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of Zostera marina. Eelgrass shoots were collected from Padilla Bay, Washington and placed into seawater tanks in 18 oz. cups of sediment with a disk of agar at the bottom to simulate organic enrichment and to stimulate sulfide production. The growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency of the eelgrass shoots were monitored weekly for six weeks. After week three, the water columns of six of the tanks were reduced to hypoxic conditions (<2mg L-1). During week 6, the oxygen concentration was dropped further to near anoxic conditions. After week 6, eelgrass tissue samples were collected for measurement of total sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen. The results indicated that hypoxia had a significant negative effect on Z. marina shoots, which was evidenced by strong reductions in growth rates and photosynthetic efficiencies. These findings indicate that hypoxia in conjunction with sediment organic enrichment harms eelgrass health and enhances the intrusion of sulfide into plant tissues, over a wide range of pore-water sulfide concentrations.
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            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
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            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0156596
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  Dataset Description
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/oas/156596
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  Descriptive Information
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
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                transferSize:
                  Real:  0.328
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/download/156596
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  HTTPS
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  0.328
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                    linkage: ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/nodc/archive/arc0098/0156596/
                    protocol:  FTP
                    applicationProfile:  Any FTP client
                    name:  FTP
                    description:  These data are available through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). You may use any FTP client to download these data.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NCEI Accession 0156596 v1.1 was published.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2016-10-18T14:59:11
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0156596 v1.1
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0156596/1.1
                                    protocol:  HTTP
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0156596 v1.1
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0156596 v1.1
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) (measured); Units: micromole/second/m^2; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: PAR light meter.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) (measured); Units: millimole; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: ion selective electrode; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Pore-water sippers were used to obtain weekly sulfide concentrations in each sample. Sulfide present in pore-water was preserved in SAOB. Pore-water samples preserved in SAOB were measured using an ion selective electrode.; Data Quality Information: Calibration curves were created to ensure collected pore-water sulfide concentrations within samples were reasonable (0-10mM).
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: growth rate (measured); Units: mm; Observation Type: other; Sampling Instrument: ruler; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Growth rates were measured weekly for each shoot using the pin-prick method. Shoots were marked along the sheath using a 23-gauge needle. Growth is calculated as new growth per day in mm and measured over 5 days. NAs are from shoots that had died.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY (measured); Units: unitless; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: fluorometer; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Photosynthetic efficiency was measured weekly using a PAM fluorometer. Plants were removed from the tanks and allowed to dark adapt for 30 minutes. Measurements were taken on the inner most, or youngest, leaf just above the sheath.; Data Quality Information: PAM was not measured for week 3. Otherwise, NAs indicate a shoot that had died.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: OXYGEN - DISSOLVED GAS [DISSOLVED OXYGEN] (measured); Units: milligram/L; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Oxygen sensor; Sampling and Analyzing Method: 6 out of 12 tanks were subjected to hypoxic conditions. During the first 3 weeks of the experiment all tanks were bubbled continuously with ambient atmospheric air to maintain dissolved oxygen levels at saturation. During the latter half of the experiment, 6 of the 12 tanks were treated with 500 ppm CO2-Nitrogen gas to reduce water column oxygen to <2 mg/L (hypoxic conditions). During the last week of the experiment, oxygen concentrations in hypoxic treatments were reduced to 0 mg/L to determine if eelgrass can survive anoxia.; Data Quality Information: Oxygen concentrations in hypoxic tanks were monitored daily using PreSens PSt3 oxygen sensors and HOBO U26 Dissolved Oxygen loggers. Oxygen concentrations in oxygen-saturated tanks were monitored using Clark-type micro electrode and picoammeter.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Total C:N:S (measured); Units: NA; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Elantech Flash EA 1112 elemental analyzer; Sampling and Analyzing Method: All samples were stored frozen (-80C) and then were dried and ground using a mortar and pestle in preparation for elemental analysis, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, using BBOT as the standard. Sample masses ranged from 3-10 mg. Samples, blanks, and standards were run with 10 mg of vanadium pentoxide to reduce tailing of the sulfur peak.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC) (measured); Units: μmol kg-1; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Apollo SciTech AS-C3 Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Analyzer; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Water samples were collected and filtered through a 0.2 μm nylon filter. Samples were refrigerated at 2°C for one month before processing.
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  fluorometer
            type:  fluorometer
            description:  fluorometer
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  oxygen meter
            type:  oxygen meter
            description:  Any instrument that measures oxygen content in a compound.
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  PAR Sensor
            type:  PAR Sensor
            description:  Photosynthetically Active Radiation Sensor The PAR sensor measures global solar radiation from 400 to 700 nm, which approximates the spectral band active in photosynthesis. The response of the instrument falls sharply to zero on either side of this band, and between 400 and 670 nm it increases monotonically from about 50% to 100%. There is no protective glass dome over the receiving surface. Irradiance from the sun passes through a small white visible bandpass filter/diffuser in the shape of a horizontal disk at the top of the instrument. Within the instrument radiation is directed through a series of colored glass filters and onto a silicon photodiode detector. The factory-supplied calibration converts the signal from the detector to a flux of photons in micro-mole (of photons) s-1 m-2. (One micro-mole equals 6.022 E17 photons.) For the solar spectrum, these units may be converted to watts per square meter by dividing by 4.6. (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/instrument/par.htm)