Potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis (NCEI Accession 0157223)


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            title:  Potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis (NCEI Accession 0157223)
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        abstract:  This archival package contains potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis. Effects of ocean acidification (OA) on deep-sea coral habitats in Alaska could be pronounced given the particularly shallow and rapidly shoaling calcite and aragonite saturation horizons in the region. The magnitude of potential effects could partially depend on the corals' calcium carbonate mineralogy. We used X-ray diffraction and powerful full-pattern Rietveld data refinement to precisely determine the skeletal composition of 62 species of Alaskan corals-the most comprehensive cold-water coral dataset for any region of the world. Alaskan corals have complex mineralogy, including a high percentage of slightly polymorphic taxa. Scleractinians and octocorals were principally aragonite and calcite, respectively. A few octocorals were composed of the most soluble form of calcium carbonate (high-Mg calcite). Hydrocorals have the most complex mineralogy with many polymorphic taxa, and some genera have both aragonite and calcite species. Most coral taxa live at least partially below the current saturation horizons so may be physiologically compensating for the effects of OA via important life-history trade-offs. We found evidence of mineral-switching related to depth distribution or broad-scale biogeography. All Alaskan corals are protected by organic tissue and may have the ability to up-regulate the pH of internal calcifying fluid relative to ambient seawater. No Alaskan corals are at risk for skeletal dissolution based on present-day carbonate chemistry conditions in the North Pacific Ocean although the carbonate mineralogy of a few taxa may approach estimated dissolution points. Alaska's ecologically most important corals (Primnoa pacifica and Stylaster spp.) are most at risk to potential effects of OA given their highly soluble skeletons, depth distribution, and observed propensity for tissue loss from contact with fishing gear and predation. Laboratory experiments are currently underway to determine if Primnoa pacifica can tolerate carbonate chemistry conditions predicted for year 2100 and maintain important life-history functions.
        purpose:  The goals of this study were to determine the skeletal composition of select Alaskan corals from each major taxonomic group and species of particular ecological importance (i.e. those that form large single-species assemblages). We use the mineralogy data in conjunction with species distribution data (depth and geographical) and the present and projected aragonite and calcite saturation horizons to determine which DSC are most at risk to possible effects from ocean acidification. Additionally, we investigated for evidence of intraspecific variation in skeletal mineralogy at broad geographic and bathymetric scales.
        credit:  Funding Information: NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program (Calcium carbonate mineralogy of Alaskan corals, OAPFY13.03.AFSC.005)
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            keyword:  % Aragonite, % Calcite, % High-Mg Calcite
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            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Stone, Robert P.; Guinotte, John; Hebling, Angela; Cohen, Anne; Cairns, Stephen D.; Cross, Jessica N. (2017). Potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis (NCEI Accession 0157223). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.7289/v5hm56h2. Accessed [date].
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                    beginPosition:  2010-12-01
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        supplementalInformation:  INVESTIGATORS: Robert P Stone {Alaska Fisheries Science Center, 17109 Point Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AK, 99801, USA} John Guinotte {Marine Conservation Institute, 4010 Stone Way N, Suite 210, Seattle, WA, 98103, USA} Angela Hebling and Anne Cohen {Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543, USA} LOCATION OF ORGANISM COLLECTION: Of the 124 specimens examined in this study 11 were from California, 1 from Oregon, 2 from Washington, 3 from British Columbia, 5 from Russian waters, and 102 from Alaska. FUNDING AGENCY: NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program PROJECT TITLE: Calcium carbonate mineralogy of Alaskan corals PROJECT ID: OAPFY13.03.AFSC.005
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/1730 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0157223 v1.1 was published.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2017-02-03T17:55:11Z
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                        title:  NCEI Accession 0157223 v1.1
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                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0157223 v1.1
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0157223 v1.1
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                description:  Parameter or Variable: Percentage of aragonite, calcite, and high-magnesium calcite; Abbreviation: % Aragonite, % Calcite, % High-Mg Calcite; Observation type: mineralogy composition analysis; Analyzing instrument: Phillips Analytical PW 1830 XRD; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: We powderized coral skeletons from 62 taxa, analyzed the powders (124 samples total) with X-ray diffraction refinement methodolgy. We determined the pecentage of aragonite, calcite and high-magnesium calcite and then the mole % of magnesium calcite for the latter samples. ; Uncertainty: plus/minus 0.8%; Biological subject: Alaskan corals and one calcareous sponge species; Researcher name: Anne Cohen and colleagues; Researcher institution: Woods Whole Oceanographic Institution.
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                description:  Parameter or Variable: Mole percentage high-magnesium calcite; Abbreviation: Mole % High-Mg calcite; Observation type: mineralogy composition analysis; Calculation method and parameters: Phase quantification and full-pattern Reitveld refinement ; Analyzing instrument: PANalytical X'Pert Pro Diffractometer ; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: We performed high-resolution X-ray diffreaction on 97 samples determined to contain calcite from the simple X-ray diffraction analyses (above). Analyses were done ewith phase quantification and full-pattern Reitveld refinement to determine the mole % for each sample. ; Uncertainty: plus/minus 0.8%; Biological subject: Alaskan corals and one calcareous sponge species; Researcher name: Angela Helbling and colleagues; Researcher institution: Woods Whole Oceanographic Institution and Center for Material Sciences and Engineering (MIT).
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