Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0159428)

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This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1). The East Coast Ocean Acidification (ECOA) Cruise on board NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter from Newport, took place in the Gulf of Maine and then along the East US coast to Miami. The effort was in support of the coastal monitoring and research objectives of the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP). The cruise was designed to obtain a snapshot of key carbon, physical, and biogeochemical parameters as they relate to ocean acidification (OA) in the coastal realm. The cruise included a series of 11 transects approximately orthogonal to the Gulf of Maine and Atlantic coasts and a comprehensive set of underway measurements along the entire transect.
  • Cite as: Salisbury, Joseph E. (2017). Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0159428). Version 2.2. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5VT1Q40 [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0159428
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Ordering Instructions Data may be searched and downloaded using online services provided by NCEI using the online resource URLs in this record. Contact NCEI Information Services for custom orders. When requesting data from NCEI, the desired data set may be referred to by the unique package identification number listed in this metadata record.
Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Information Services
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 44.9445
S: 26.9822
E: -61.7185
W: -80.9735
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
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  • Dataset Description
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Publication Dates
  • publication: 2017-01-31
  • revision: 2017-07-12
Edition 2.2
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
INVESTIGATOR(S):
Joe Salisbury {Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, 8 College Road,
Durham, NH, 03824, USA}

Wei-Jun Cai {College of Earth, Ocean, and the Environment, University of Delaware, 014 Lammot DuPont Lab,
Newark, DE, 19716, USA}

Rik Wanninkhof {Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL, 33149, USA}

Leticia Barbero {Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL, 33149, USA}

Shawn Shellito {University of New Hampshire, 8 College Road,
Durham, NH, 03824, USA}

Bror Jonsson {University of New Hampshire, 8 College Road,
Durham, NH, 03824, USA}

Chris Langdon {University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, Miami, 33149, USA}

Antonio Mannino {NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 616.1,
Greenbelt, MD, 20771, USA}

Margaret Mulholland {Old Dominion University, 435 Oceanography and Physics Bldg,
Norfolk, VA, 23529, USA}

Jia-Zhong Zhang {Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL, 33149, USA}

Lauren Jurank {College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 104 CEOAS Admin Bldg.,
Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA}

EXPOCODE: 33GG20150619
CRUISE ID: GU-15-04 ECOA1

FUNDING AGENCY:
NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program
PROJECT TITLE: East Coast Ocean Acidification, ECOA, Cruise
PROJECT ID: NA11NOS0120034

In this accession, NCEI has archived multiple versions of these data. The latest (and best) version of these data has the largest version number.
Purpose To measure key carbon, physical and biogeochemical parameters in coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine and eastern coast of the US in relation to Ocean Acidification.
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Salisbury, Joseph E. (2017). Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0159428). Version 2.2. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5VT1Q40 [access date]
Cited Authors
  • Salisbury, Joseph E.
Principal Investigators
Contributors
Resource Providers
Publishers
Acknowledgments
  • Funding Information: NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program (East Coast Ocean Acidification (ECOA) Cruise, NA11NOS0120034)
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
Cruise ID
  • GU-15-04 ECOA1
EXPOCODE
  • 33GG20150619
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS > PRIMARY PRODUCTION
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ALKALINITY
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CARBON
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CHLOROPHYLL
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > INORGANIC CARBON
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRITE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITROGEN
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ORGANIC CARBON
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ORGANIC MATTER
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PH
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PHOSPHATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > SILICATE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALINITY
Provider Keywords
  • ECOA
Provider Variable Names
  • ALKALI
  • CDOM
  • CTD_o2_conc
  • CTD_o2_sat
  • DIC_AOML
  • DIC_UDEL
  • DOC
  • HPLC_chl_a
  • NO2
  • NO2+NO3
  • NO3
  • NPP
  • PC_NPP
  • PH_TOT
  • PN
  • PN_NPP
  • PO4
  • POC
  • Sal_1
  • Sal_2
  • Silicate
  • Temp_1
  • Temp_2
  • oxygen
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/OAR/AOML > Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • SHIPS
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • CTD > Conductivity, Temperature, Depth
  • NISKIN BOTTLES
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
Provider Geographic Names
  • U.S. East Coast
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Ocean Acidification Search Keywords
  • Ocean Acidification Data Stewardship (OADS) Project
  • Ocean Acidification Program (OAP)
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Salisbury, Joseph E. (2017). Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0159428). Version 2.2. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5VT1Q40 [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
  • Digital data may be downloaded from NCEI at no charge in most cases. For custom orders of digital data or to obtain a copy of analog materials, please contact NCEI Information Services for information about current fees.
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2017-01-31T20:55:15 - NCEI Accession 0159428 v1.1 was published.
  • 2017-07-12T18:25:17 - NCEI Accession 0159428 was revised and v2.2 was published.
    Rationale: Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • Parameter or Variable: Dissolved Inorganic Carbon; Abbreviation: DIC_AOML; Unit: micromol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Two systems consisting of a coulometer (UIC Inc.) coupled with a Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Extractor (DICE) inlet system. DICE was developed by Esa Peltola and Denis Pierrot of NOAA/AOML and Dana Greeley of NOAA/PMEL to modernize a carbon extractor called SOMMA (Johnson et al. 1985, 1987, 1993, and 1999; Johnson 1992); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measurements were drawn according to procedures outlined in the Handbook of Methods for CO2 Analysis (DOE 1994) from Niskin bottles into cleaned 294-ml glass bottles. Bottles were rinsed and filled from the bottom, leaving 6 ml of headspace; care was taken not to entrain any bubbles. After 0.2 ml of saturated HgCl2 solution was added as a preservative, the sample bottles were sealed with glass stoppers lightly covered with Apiezon-L grease and were stored at room temperature for a maximum of 12 hours prior to analysis. The DIC analytical equipment was set up in a seagoing laboratory van. The analysis was done by coulometry with two analytical systems (AOML3 and AOML4) used simultaneously on the cruise. In the coulometric analysis of DIC, all carbonate species are converted to CO2 (gas) by addition of excess hydrogen ion (acid) to the seawater sample, and the evolved CO2 gas is swept into the titration cell of the coulometer with pure air or compressed nitrogen, where it reacts quantitatively with a proprietary reagent based on ethanolamine to generate hydrogen ions. In this process, the solution changes from blue to colorless, triggering a current through the cell and causing coulometrical generation of OH- ions at the anode. The OH- ions react with the H+, and the solution turns blue again. A beam of light is shone through the solution, and a photometric detector at the opposite side of the cell senses the change in transmission. Once the percent transmission reaches its original value, the coulometric titration is stopped, and the amount of CO2 that enters the cell is determined by integrating the total charge during the titration. The pipette volume was determined by taking aliquots at known temperature of distilled water from the volumes. The weights with the appropriate densities were used to determine the volume of the pipettes. Calculation of the amount of CO2 injected was according to the CO2 handbook (DOE 1994). The instrument has a salinity sensor, but all DIC values were recalculated to a molar weight (umol/kg) using density obtained from the CTD's salinity. The DIC values were corrected for dilution by 0.2 ml of saturated HgCl2 used for sample preservation. A correction was also applied for the offset from the CRM. This additive correction was applied for each cell using the CRM value obtained in the beginning of the cell. The average correction was 2.13 umol/kg. While both systems worked very well during the cruise, they occasionally had high blanks. Normally the blank is less than 30, but we were forced to run them with blanks in the 12-38 range. Several relatively minor problems occurred with AOML 3 during the cruise; (1) A power problem on 06/20/2015 with the coulometer was resolved by plugging several items into different outlets instead of all into the same power strip, (2) Pipette filling problem (liquid level sensor error) which started on 06/28/2015 was resolved on 07/08/2015 by replacing sample tubing and valve/inlet 13, (3) the coulometer was malfunctioning on 07/10/2015 and not responding to the computer/labview program and was switched out with an older version coulometer (AOML5), which was used for the remainder of the cruise, and (4) a field point communication error occurred on 07/16/2015 and was resolved by tightening the serial port connection to DICE 3. AOML 4 worked well during the cruise with no problems. Underway samples were collected from the flow thru system in the Wet Lab during transits between station lines. Discrete DIC samples were collected every hour with duplicates every fifth sample. ; Replicate information: Duplicates were collected on most CTD stations and every 5th sample for the underway discrete sampling. A total of 184 duplicates were collected from the discrete CTD samples which had an average difference of 1.09umol/kg and STDEV of 0.77. A total of 44 duplicates were collected for the discrete underway samples which had an average difference of 1.31 umol/kg and STDEV of 0.92. A duplicate data file is included.; Standardization description: The coulometers were calibrated by injecting aliquots of pure CO2 (99.99%) by means of an 8-port valve outfitted with two sample loops with known gas volumes bracketing the amount of CO2 extracted from the water samples for the two AOML systems.; Standardization frequency: The stability of each coulometer cell solution was confirmed three different ways: two sets of gas loops were measured at the beginning; also the Certified Reference Material (CRM), Batch 121, supplied by Dr. A. Dickson of SIO, was measured at the beginning; and the duplicate samples at the beginning, middle, and end of each cell solution. The coulometer cell solution was replaced after 25 mg of carbon was titrated, typically after 9-12 hours of continuous use.; CRM manufacturer: Dr. A. Dickson (SIO); Poison name: saturated HgCl2; Poison volume: 0.2 ml; Poison correction: The DIC values were corrected for dilution by 0.2 ml of saturated HgCl2 used for sample preservation. The total water volume of the sample bottles was 288 ml (calibrated by Esa Peltola, AOML). The correction factor used for dilution was 1.0007. ; Uncertainty: none; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). (1994). Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Seawater. Version 2.0. ORNL/CDIAC-74. Ed. A. G. Dickson and C. Goyet. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. Johnson, K.M., Kortzinger, A.; Mintrop, L.; Duinker, J.C.; and Wallace, D.W.R. (1999). Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Measurement and internal consistency of underway surface TCO2 concentrations. Marine Chemistry 67:123-44. Johnson, K.M., Wills, K.D.; Butler, D.B.; Johnson, W.K.; and Wong, C.S. (1993). Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Maximizing the performance of an automated gas extraction. Johnson, K.M. (1992). Operator's Manual: Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA) for Total Carbon Dioxide (CT) with Coulometric Detection. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven, N.Y. Johnson, K.M.; Williams, P.J.; Brandstrom, L.; and McN. Sieburth, J. (1987). Coulometric total carbon analysis for marine studies: Automation and calibration. Marine Chemistry 21:117-33.; Researcher name: Rik Wanninkhof1, Leticia Barbero1, 2; Researcher institution: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1, University of Miami, CIMAS2.
  • Parameter or Variable: Dissolved Inorganic Carbon; Abbreviation: DIC_UDEL; Unit: micromol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: DIC was measured using a DIC analyzer (AS-C3, Apollo SciTech). The system consist of a Non-dispersive infrared CO2 detector Licor-7000, a high precision digital pump, a mass flow controller, a CO2 stripping reactor, and a thermostated water bath. ; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples were measured approximately one month after collection in Dr. Wei-Jun Cai's lab at University of Delaware. Seawater samples were collected directly from Niskin bottles after about several hundred milliliters of seawater overflowed. Samples were measured at 15 degrees Celsius. Each sample (1 mL) was acidified using phosphoric acid and the evolved CO2 gas was extracted and carried by pure N2 gas to an infrared CO2 detector (Li-Cor 7000) for quantification. Each sample measurement was repreated at least four times with the first measurement discarded. The other three measurements are precise within 0.1%. We report the average of the repeat measurements. ; Replicate information: AOML collected samples from the same stations and depths. ; Standardization description: The DIC concentration was calibrated by Certified Reference Material (CRM), supplied by Dr. A. G. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. ; Standardization frequency: The Certified Reference Material (CRM) were measured at the beginning and ending of each day.; CRM manufacturer: Dr. A. G. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; CRM batch number: 141; Poison name: saturated HgCl2; Poison volume: 100 micro-liter; Poison correction: The DIC values were corrected for dilution by 0.1 ml of saturated HgCl2 used for sample preservation. The volume of the sample bottle is 250 mL. ; Uncertainty: less than 0.1%; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Wang, Z. H. A. and W. J. Cai (2004). Carbon dioxide degassing and inorganic carbon export from a marsh-dominated estuary (the Duplin River): A marsh CO2 pump."" Limnology and Oceanography 49(2): 341-354. Dickson, A. G., C. L. Sabine and J. R. Christian (2007). Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements.; Researcher name: Wei-Jun Cai; Researcher institution: University of Delaware.
  • Parameter or Variable: Total alkalinity; Abbreviation: ALKALI; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Semi-automated total alkalinity titration system (AS-ALK2, Apollo Scitech). This system consists of two high precision Kloehn digital pumps which are equipped with 1 ml and 25 ml syringes, an Orion Star A211 pH meter (Thermo Scientific), and an Orion 8102BN ROSS combination pH electrode (Thermo Scientific), and a thermostated water bath.; Type of titration: Gran titration; Cell type (open or closed): Open; Curve fitting method: Linear least squares regression; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples were measured within 24 hours of collection except for samples collected from station 19, which were poisoned with saturated HgCl2. TA samples were collected directly from the Niskin bottle into 250 ml ground-glass borosilicate bottles without HgCl2 poisoning. TA was determined on 25 mL seawater samples by potentiometric titration, using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and an open-cell titration system. All TA samples were analyzed in pre-thermostated glass cells. For each sample analysis, subsamples were sequentially analyzed at least twice until we obtained two replicates with a precision within 0.1%.; Replicate information: 50 duplicates were sampled during the cruise.; Standardization description: The pH electrode was calibrated with three pH buffers (NBS) 4.01, 7.00, and 10.01. Recalibration was done every 12 to 24 hours. The concentration of HCl solution was standardized by the Certified Reference Material (CRM, batch#121 and batch#141). In addition, CRM was also used as sample to check the stability of the TA titration system every 12 hours or when necessary. ; Standardization frequency: The concentration of hydrochloric acid was standardized once per day using the Certified Reference Material (CRM).; CRM manufacturer: Dr. A. G. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; CRM batch number: Batch#121 and batch#141; Uncertainty: The precision of this method is better than 0.1% and accuracy is 0.1%.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Gran, G. (1952). "Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. Part II." Analyst 77(920): 661-671. Cai, W. J., X. P. Hu, W. J. Huang, L. Q. Jiang, Y. C. Wang, T. H. Peng and X. Zhang (2010). "Alkalinity distribution in the western North Atlantic Ocean margins." Journal of Geophysical Research 115: C08014. Huang, W. J., Y. C. Wang and W. J. Cai (2012). "Assessment of sample storage techniques for total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater." Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10: 711-717. Dickson, A. G., C. L. Sabine and J. R. Christian (2007). "Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements."; Researcher name: Wei-Jun Cai; Researcher institution: University of Delaware.
  • Parameter or Variable: pH; Abbreviation: PH_TOT; pH scale: Total; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: The pH was measured using the spectrophotometric method on the total hydrogen ion concentration pH scale. The analyzing system consists of an Agilent 8453 UV-visible spectroscopy system, a high precision Kloehn digital pump, a 10-cm light path quartz cell, a thermostated water bath, and a custom-made temperature-control system for spectrophotometer cell.; Temperature of pH measurement: 20 C and 25 C. The temperature of measurement for each sample is given under the variable abbreviation "PH_TOT_TEMP".; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was sampled directly from the Niskin bottle into a narrow neck 125 mL borosilicate glass bottle. After filling the bottle, we let several hundred mL of seawater overflow and then capped the bottle. While awaiting analysis, the samples were stored in the dark. Seawater was analyzed within 2 hours of collection. During analysis, the absorbance of a seawater blank was first measured at three wavelengths (578, 434, and 730 nm). Then the absorbance of the mixture of concentrated purified dye m-cresol purple (30 micro-liter, ~2 mmol/L, MCP) and seawater was measured at the same wavelengths. In addition, a double dye addition experiment was carried out at sea to evaluate the influence on pH due to the addition of dye into seawater. ; Replicate information: 73 duplicates were sampled during the cruise.; Standardization description: The pH data was guaranteed by purified m-cresol purple which was supplied by Dr. Robert H. Byrne at University of South Florida.; At what temperature was pH reported: 20 C and 25 C. Reported at the temperature of measurement. ; Uncertainty: less than 0.001 pH units; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Liu, X. W., M. C. Patsavas and R. H. Byrne (2011). "Purification and Characterization of meta-Cresol Purple for Spectrophotometric Seawater pH Measurements." Environmental Science and Technology 45(11): 4862-4868. Clayton, T. D. and R. H. Byrne (1993). "Spectrophotometric seawater pH measurements - total hydrogen-ion concentration scale calibration of m-cresol purple and at-sea results." Deep-Sea Research Part I 40(10): 2115-2129. Dickson, A. G., C. L. Sabine and J. R. Christian (2007). "Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements."; Researcher name: Wei-Jun Cai; Researcher institution: University of Delaware.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD temperature primary; Abbreviation: Temp_1; Unit: deg c; Observation type: profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: CTD; Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE-911plus; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: A detailed and more complete description is available in the cruise report at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf. CTD/rosette casts were performed with a package consisting of a 24-place, 10-liter rosette frame (AOML's yellow frame), a 24-place water sampler/pylon (SBE32) and 24, 10-liter Bullister/Niskin-style bottles. This package was deployed on all stations/casts. Underwater electronic components consisted of a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 9 plus CTD with dual pumps and the following sensors: dual temperature (SBE3), dual conductivity (SBE4), dual dissolved oxygen (SBE43), and a Simrad 807 altimeter. The CTDs supplied a standard Sea-Bird format data stream at a data rate of 24 frames/second. The SBE9plus CTD was connected to the SBE32 24-place pylon providing for single-conductor sea cable operation. Power to the SBE9plus CTD, SBE32 pylon, auxiliary sensors, and altimeter was provided through the sea cable from the SBE11plus deck unit in the computer lab. The raw CTD data and bottle trips acquired by SBE Seasave on the Windows 7 workstation were processed from hex files to cnv files and then into bottle files. Post cruise data processing was completed on a Windows 7 machine running SEABIRD SBE DATA Processing version 7.22.5 ; Uncertainty: Post cruise calibration suggestions a drift of only +0.00123 over a year; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf.; Researcher name: Joe Salisbury; Researcher institution: Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD temperature secondary; Abbreviation: Temp_2; Unit: deg c; Observation type: profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: CTD; Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE-911plus; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: A detailed and more complete description is available in the cruise report at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf. CTD/rosette casts were performed with a package consisting of a 24-place, 10-liter rosette frame (AOML's yellow frame), a 24-place water sampler/pylon (SBE32) and 24, 10-liter Bullister/Niskin-style bottles. This package was deployed on all stations/casts. Underwater electronic components consisted of a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 9 plus CTD with dual pumps and the following sensors: dual temperature (SBE3), dual conductivity (SBE4), dual dissolved oxygen (SBE43), and a Simrad 807 altimeter. The CTDs supplied a standard Sea-Bird format data stream at a data rate of 24 frames/second. The SBE9plus CTD was connected to the SBE32 24-place pylon providing for single-conductor sea cable operation. Power to the SBE9plus CTD, SBE32 pylon, auxiliary sensors, and altimeter was provided through the sea cable from the SBE11plus deck unit in the computer lab. The raw CTD data and bottle trips acquired by SBE Seasave on the Windows 7 workstation were processed from hex files to cnv files and then into bottle files. Post cruise data processing was completed on a Windows 7 machine running SEABIRD SBE DATA Processing version 7.22.5 ; Uncertainty: Post cruise calibration suggestions a drift of only +0.00123 over a year; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf.; Researcher name: Joe Salisbury; Researcher institution: Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD Primary Salinity; Abbreviation: Sal_1; Unit: PSU; Observation type: profile; Sampling instrument: CTD; Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE-911plus; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: A detailed and more complete description is available in the cruise report at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf. CTD/rosette casts were performed with a package consisting of a 24-place, 10-liter rosette frame (AOML's yellow frame), a 24-place water sampler/pylon (SBE32) and 24, 10-liter Bullister/Niskin-style bottles. This package was deployed on all stations/casts. Underwater electronic components consisted of a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 9 plus CTD with dual pumps and the following sensors: dual temperature (SBE3), dual conductivity (SBE4), dual dissolved oxygen (SBE43), and a Simrad 807 altimeter. The CTDs supplied a standard Sea-Bird format data stream at a data rate of 24 frames/second. The SBE9plus CTD was connected to the SBE32 24-place pylon providing for single-conductor sea cable operation. Power to the SBE9plus CTD, SBE32 pylon, auxiliary sensors, and altimeter was provided through the sea cable from the SBE11plus deck unit in the computer lab. The raw CTD data and bottle trips acquired by SBE Seasave on the Windows 7 workstation were processed from hex files to cnv files and then into bottle files. Post cruise data processing was completed on a Windows 7 machine running SEABIRD SBE DATA Processing version 7.22.5 ; Uncertainty: Conductivity sensor calibration coefficients derived from the pre-cruise calibrations were applied to raw primary and secondary conductivities. Comparisons between the primary and secondary sensors and between each of the sensors to check sample conductivities. Post cruise calibration of the primary sensor determined the sensor drift to be 0.0008 PSU/month.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf.; Researcher name: Joe Salisbury; Researcher institution: Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD Secondary Salinity; Abbreviation: Sal_2; Unit: PSU; Observation type: profile; Sampling instrument: CTD; Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE-911plus; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: A detailed and more complete description is available in the cruise report at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf. CTD/rosette casts were performed with a package consisting of a 24-place, 10-liter rosette frame (AOML's yellow frame), a 24-place water sampler/pylon (SBE32) and 24, 10-liter Bullister/Niskin-style bottles. This package was deployed on all stations/casts. Underwater electronic components consisted of a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 9 plus CTD with dual pumps and the following sensors: dual temperature (SBE3), dual conductivity (SBE4), dual dissolved oxygen (SBE43), and a Simrad 807 altimeter. The CTDs supplied a standard Sea-Bird format data stream at a data rate of 24 frames/second. The SBE9plus CTD was connected to the SBE32 24-place pylon providing for single-conductor sea cable operation. Power to the SBE9plus CTD, SBE32 pylon, auxiliary sensors, and altimeter was provided through the sea cable from the SBE11plus deck unit in the computer lab. The raw CTD data and bottle trips acquired by SBE Seasave on the Windows 7 workstation were processed from hex files to cnv files and then into bottle files. Post cruise data processing was completed on a Windows 7 machine running SEABIRD SBE DATA Processing version 7.22.5 ; Uncertainty: Conductivity sensor calibration coefficients derived from the pre-cruise calibrations were applied to raw primary and secondary conductivities. Comparisons between the primary and secondary sensors and between each of the sensors to check sample conductivities. Post cruise calibration of the primary sensor determined the sensor drift to be 0.0008 PSU/month.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf.; Researcher name: Joe Salisbury; Researcher institution: Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD oxygen saturation; Abbreviation: CTD_o2_sat; Unit: % Sat; Observation type: profile; Measured or calculated: measured; Sampling instrument: CTD; Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE-911plus; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: A detailed and more complete description is available in the cruise report at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf. CTD/rosette casts were performed with a package consisting of a 24-place, 10-liter rosette frame (AOML's yellow frame), a 24-place water sampler/pylon (SBE32) and 24, 10-liter Bullister/Niskin-style bottles. This package was deployed on all stations/casts. Underwater electronic components consisted of a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 9 plus CTD with dual pumps and the following sensors: dual temperature (SBE3), dual conductivity (SBE4), dual dissolved oxygen (SBE43), and a Simrad 807 altimeter. The CTDs supplied a standard Sea-Bird format data stream at a data rate of 24 frames/second. The SBE9plus CTD was connected to the SBE32 24-place pylon providing for single-conductor sea cable operation. Power to the SBE9plus CTD, SBE32 pylon, auxiliary sensors, and altimeter was provided through the sea cable from the SBE11plus deck unit in the computer lab. The raw CTD data and bottle trips acquired by SBE Seasave on the Windows 7 workstation were processed from hex files to cnv files and then into bottle files. Post cruise data processing was completed on a Windows 7 machine running SEABIRD SBE DATA Processing version 7.22.5 ; Uncertainty: The DO sensors were calibrated to dissolved O2 check samples by matching the up cast bottle trips to CTD bottle files. Post cruise calibration of the sensor determined that there was minimal drift with a slope of 1.0301 ml/L between calibrations. ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf.; Researcher name: Joe Salisbury; Researcher institution: Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.
  • Parameter or Variable: CTD oxygen concentration ; Abbreviation: CTD_o2_conc; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: profile; Measured or calculated: measured; Sampling instrument: CTD; Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE-911plus; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: A detailed and more complete description is available in the cruise report at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf. CTD/rosette casts were performed with a package consisting of a 24-place, 10-liter rosette frame (AOML's yellow frame), a 24-place water sampler/pylon (SBE32) and 24, 10-liter Bullister/Niskin-style bottles. This package was deployed on all stations/casts. Underwater electronic components consisted of a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 9 plus CTD with dual pumps and the following sensors: dual temperature (SBE3), dual conductivity (SBE4), dual dissolved oxygen (SBE43), and a Simrad 807 altimeter. The CTDs supplied a standard Sea-Bird format data stream at a data rate of 24 frames/second. The SBE9plus CTD was connected to the SBE32 24-place pylon providing for single-conductor sea cable operation. Power to the SBE9plus CTD, SBE32 pylon, auxiliary sensors, and altimeter was provided through the sea cable from the SBE11plus deck unit in the computer lab. The raw CTD data and bottle trips acquired by SBE Seasave on the Windows 7 workstation were processed from hex files to cnv files and then into bottle files. Post cruise data processing was completed on a Windows 7 machine running SEABIRD SBE DATA Processing version 7.22.5 ; Uncertainty: The DO sensors were calibrated to dissolved O2 check samples by matching the up cast bottle trips to CTD bottle files. Post cruise calibration of the sensor determined that there was minimal drift with a slope of 1.0301 ml/L between calibrations. ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/gcc/ECOA1/Cruise_Report.pdf.; Researcher name: Joe Salisbury; Researcher institution: Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.
  • Parameter or Variable: bottle dissolved oxygen; Abbreviation: oxygen; Unit: umol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Automated oxygen titrator using amperometric end-point detection (Langdon 2010).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples were drawn from all casts and all Niskin bottles into volumetrically calibrated 125 ml iodine titration flasks using Tygon tubing with a silicone adaptor that fit over the petcock to avoid contamination of DOC samples. Bottles were rinsed three times and filled from the bottom, overflowing three volumes while taking care not to entrain any bubbles. The draw temperature was taken using a digital thermometer with a flexible thermistor probe that was inserted into the flask while the sample was being drawn during the overflow period. These temperatures were used to calculate concentrations, and a diagnostic check of Niskin bottle integrity. One ml of MnCl2 and one ml of NaOH/NaI were added immediately after drawing of the sample was concluded using a Repipetor, the flasks were then stoppered and shaken well. DIW was added to the neck of each flask to create a water seal. The flasks were stored in the lab in plastic totes at room temperature for at least 1 hour before analysis. Twenty-four samples plus duplicates were drawn from each station except the shallow coastal stations where fewer samples were drawn depending on the depth or as directed by the chief scientist. Dissolved oxygen analyses were performed with an automated oxygen titrator using amperometric end-point detection (Langdon 2010). The titration of the samples and the data logging and graphical display was performed on a PC running a LabView program written by Ulises Rivero of AOML. The titrations were performed in a climate controlled lab at 18.5-20 degrees Celsius. Thiosulfate was dispensed by a 2 ml Gilmont syringe driven with a stepper motor controlled by the titrator. Tests in the lab were performed to confirm that the precision and accuracy of the volume dispensed were comparable or superior to the Dosimat 665. The whole-bottle titration technique of Carpenter (1965) with modifications by Culberson et al. (1991) was used. Four to three replicate 10 ml iodate standards were run 13 times during the cruise. The reagent blank was determined at the beginning and end of the cruise. A titration was made to 1 ml of iodate standard. The volume of thiosulfate required for the titration is V1. An additional 1 ml of standard was added to the titrated sample and titrated again. The volume of thiosulfate used for the second titration is V2. The reagent blank was determined as the difference between V1 and V2.; Replicate information: 135 duplicate samples were drawn. ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Carpenter, J.H. (1965). The Chesapeake Bay Institute technique for the Winkler dissolved oxygen method. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10: 141-143 Culberson, C.H. and Huang, S. (1987). Automated amperometric oxygen titration. Deep-Sea Res. 34: 875-880. Culberson, C.H.; Knapp, G.; Stalcup, M.; Williams, R.T. and Zemlyak, F. (1991). A comparison of methods for the determination of dissolved oxygen in seawater. WHP Operations and Methods. Langdon, C. (2010). Determination of dissolved oxygen in seawater by Winkler titration using the amperometric technique. The GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. E. M. Hood, C. L. Sabine and B. M. Sloyan, IOCCP Report Number 14, ICPO Publication Series Number 134.; Researcher name: Chris Langdon; Researcher institution: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science/University of Miami.
  • Parameter or Variable: Orthosilicic acid; Abbreviation: Silicate; Unit: micro-mol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Continuous flow analyzer (CFA) using the standard and analysis protocols for the WOCE hydrographic program as set forth in the manual by L.I. Gordon, et al. (1993).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were collected from Niskin bottles, after at least three seawater rinses. Sample analysis typically began within a few hours of sample collection after the samples had warmed to room temperature. Those samples not analyzed within 3 hours were refrigerated for later analysis. Samples were analyzed for phosphate (PO4- 3), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-) and orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). Silicic acid was analyzed using a modification of Armstrong et al. (1967). The sample is reacted with ammonium molybdate in an acidic solution to form molybdosilicic acid. The molybdosilicic acid was then reduced with ascorbic acid to form molybdenum blue. The absorbance of the molybdenum blue was measured at 660 nm.; Uncertainty: A mixed stock standard consisting of silicic acid, phosphate and nitrate was prepared by dissolving high purity standard materials (KNO3, KH2PO4 and Na2SiF6) in deionized water using a two step dilution for phosphate and nitrate. This standard was stored at room temperature. A nitrite stock standard was prepared dissolving NaNO2 in distilled water, and this standard was stored in a refrigerator on the ship. Working standards were prepared fresh daily by diluting the stock solutions in low nutrient seawater. The mixed standards were verified against commercial standards, and in-lab standards.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.R. and Strickland, J.D.H. (1967). The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon AutoAnalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Res. 14:381-389. Gordon, L.I., Jennings Jr., J.C., Ross, A.A. and Krest, J.M. (1993). A suggested protocol for the continuous automated analysis of seawater nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and silicic acid) in the WOCE Hydrographic program and the Joint Global Ocean Fluxes Study. WOCE Operations Manual, vol. 3: The Observational Programme, Section 3.2: WOCE Hydrographic Programme, Part 3.1.3: WHP Operations and Methods. WHP Office Report WHPO 91-1; WOCE Report No. 68/91. November 1994, Revision 1, Woods Hole, MA., USA, 52 loose-leaf pages.; Researcher name: Jia-Zhong Zhang; Researcher institution: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Parameter or Variable: nitrite; Abbreviation: NO2; Unit: micro-mol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Continuous flow analyzer (CFA) using the standard and analysis protocols for the WOCE hydrographic program as set forth in the manual by L.I. Gordon, et al. (1993).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were collected from Niskin bottles, after at least three seawater rinses. Sample analysis typically began within a few hours of sample collection after the samples had warmed to room temperature. Those samples not analyzed within 3 hours were refrigerated for later analysis. Samples were analyzed for phosphate (PO4- 3), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-) and orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). Nitrite was determined by diazotizing the sample with sulfanilamide and coupling with N-1 naphthyl ethylenediamine dihydrochloride to form an azo dye. The color produced is measured at 540 nm.; Uncertainty: A mixed stock standard consisting of silicic acid, phosphate and nitrate was prepared by dissolving high purity standard materials (KNO3, KH2PO4 and Na2SiF6) in deionized water using a two step dilution for phosphate and nitrate. This standard was stored at room temperature. A nitrite stock standard was prepared dissolving NaNO2 in distilled water, and this standard was stored in a refrigerator on the ship. Working standards were prepared fresh daily by diluting the stock solutions in low nutrient seawater. The mixed standards were verified against commercial standards, and in-lab standards.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.R. and Strickland, J.D.H. (1967). The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon AutoAnalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Res. 14:381-389. Gordon, L.I., Jennings Jr., J.C., Ross, A.A. and Krest, J.M. (1993). A suggested protocol for the continuous automated analysis of seawater nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and silicic acid) in the WOCE Hydrographic program and the Joint Global Ocean Fluxes Study. WOCE Operations Manual, vol. 3: The Observational Programme, Section 3.2: WOCE Hydrographic Programme, Part 3.1.3: WHP Operations and Methods. WHP Office Report WHPO 91-1; WOCE Report No. 68/91. November 1994, Revision 1, Woods Hole, MA., USA, 52 loose-leaf pages.; Researcher name: Jia-Zhong Zhang; Researcher institution: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Parameter or Variable: nitrate; Abbreviation: NO3; Unit: micro-mol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Continuous flow analyzer (CFA) using the standard and analysis protocols for the WOCE hydrographic program as set forth in the manual by L.I. Gordon, et al. (1993).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were collected from Niskin bottles, after at least three seawater rinses. Sample analysis typically began within a few hours of sample collection after the samples had warmed to room temperature. Those samples not analyzed within 3 hours were refrigerated for later analysis. Samples were analyzed for phosphate (PO4- 3), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-) and orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). Samples for nitrate analysis were passed through a cadmium column, which reduced nitrate to nitrite, and the resulting nitrite concentration (i.e. the sum of nitrate + nitrite which is signified as N+N) was then determined as described above. Nitrate concentrations were determined from the difference of N+N and nitrite.; Uncertainty: A mixed stock standard consisting of silicic acid, phosphate and nitrate was prepared by dissolving high purity standard materials (KNO3, KH2PO4 and Na2SiF6) in deionized water using a two step dilution for phosphate and nitrate. This standard was stored at room temperature. A nitrite stock standard was prepared dissolving NaNO2 in distilled water, and this standard was stored in a refrigerator on the ship. Working standards were prepared fresh daily by diluting the stock solutions in low nutrient seawater. The mixed standards were verified against commercial standards, and in-lab standards.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.R. and Strickland, J.D.H. (1967). The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon AutoAnalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Res. 14:381-389. Gordon, L.I., Jennings Jr., J.C., Ross, A.A. and Krest, J.M. (1993). A suggested protocol for the continuous automated analysis of seawater nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and silicic acid) in the WOCE Hydrographic program and the Joint Global Ocean Fluxes Study. WOCE Operations Manual, vol. 3: The Observational Programme, Section 3.2: WOCE Hydrographic Programme, Part 3.1.3: WHP Operations and Methods. WHP Office Report WHPO 91-1; WOCE Report No. 68/91. November 1994, Revision 1, Woods Hole, MA., USA, 52 loose-leaf pages.; Researcher name: Jia-Zhong Zhang; Researcher institution: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Parameter or Variable: Sum of nitrite and nitrate; Abbreviation: NO2+NO3; Unit: micro-mol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Continuous flow analyzer (CFA) using the standard and analysis protocols for the WOCE hydrographic program as set forth in the manual by L.I. Gordon, et al. (1993).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were collected from Niskin bottles, after at least three seawater rinses. Sample analysis typically began within a few hours of sample collection after the samples had warmed to room temperature. Those samples not analyzed within 3 hours were refrigerated for later analysis. Samples were analyzed for phosphate (PO4- 3), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-) and orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). Samples were passed through a cadmium column, which reduced nitrate to nitrite, and the resulting nitrite concentration (i.e. the sum of nitrate + nitrite which is signified as N+N) was then determined as described above.; Uncertainty: A mixed stock standard consisting of silicic acid, phosphate and nitrate was prepared by dissolving high purity standard materials (KNO3, KH2PO4 and Na2SiF6) in deionized water using a two step dilution for phosphate and nitrate. This standard was stored at room temperature. A nitrite stock standard was prepared dissolving NaNO2 in distilled water, and this standard was stored in a refrigerator on the ship. Working standards were prepared fresh daily by diluting the stock solutions in low nutrient seawater. The mixed standards were verified against commercial standards, and in-lab standards.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.R. and Strickland, J.D.H. (1967). The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon AutoAnalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Res. 14:381-389. Gordon, L.I., Jennings Jr., J.C., Ross, A.A. and Krest, J.M. (1993). A suggested protocol for the continuous automated analysis of seawater nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and silicic acid) in the WOCE Hydrographic program and the Joint Global Ocean Fluxes Study. WOCE Operations Manual, vol. 3: The Observational Programme, Section 3.2: WOCE Hydrographic Programme, Part 3.1.3: WHP Operations and Methods. WHP Office Report WHPO 91-1; WOCE Report No. 68/91. November 1994, Revision 1, Woods Hole, MA., USA, 52 loose-leaf pages.; Researcher name: Jia-Zhong Zhang; Researcher institution: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Parameter or Variable: phosphate; Abbreviation: PO4; Unit: micro-mol/kg; Observation type: Profile; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Continuous flow analyzer (CFA) using the standard and analysis protocols for the WOCE hydrographic program as set forth in the manual by L.I. Gordon, et al. (1993).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were collected from Niskin bottles, after at least three seawater rinses. Sample analysis typically began within a few hours of sample collection after the samples had warmed to room temperature. Those samples not analyzed within 3 hours were refrigerated for later analysis. Samples were analyzed for phosphate (PO4- 3), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-) and orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). Phosphate was determined by reacting the sample with molybdic acid to form phosphomolybdic acid. This complex was subsequently reduced with hydrazine, and the absorbance of the resulting phosphomolybdous acid was measured at 710 nm.; Uncertainty: A mixed stock standard consisting of silicic acid, phosphate and nitrate was prepared by dissolving high purity standard materials (KNO3, KH2PO4 and Na2SiF6) in deionized water using a two step dilution for phosphate and nitrate. This standard was stored at room temperature. A nitrite stock standard was prepared dissolving NaNO2 in distilled water, and this standard was stored in a refrigerator on the ship. Working standards were prepared fresh daily by diluting the stock solutions in low nutrient seawater. The mixed standards were verified against commercial standards, and in-lab standards.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.R. and Strickland, J.D.H. (1967). The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon AutoAnalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Res. 14:381-389. Gordon, L.I., Jennings Jr., J.C., Ross, A.A. and Krest, J.M. (1993). A suggested protocol for the continuous automated analysis of seawater nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and silicic acid) in the WOCE Hydrographic program and the Joint Global Ocean Fluxes Study. WOCE Operations Manual, vol. 3: The Observational Programme, Section 3.2: WOCE Hydrographic Programme, Part 3.1.3: WHP Operations and Methods. WHP Office Report WHPO 91-1; WOCE Report No. 68/91. November 1994, Revision 1, Woods Hole, MA., USA, 52 loose-leaf pages.; Researcher name: Jia-Zhong Zhang; Researcher institution: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Parameter or Variable: particulate nitrogen; Abbreviation: PN; Unit: milligrams per cubic meter; Observation type: Profile; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Typically three depths (surface, mix layer, and depth inbetween) are sampled via niskin bottle. POC/PN samples are collected in 0.5, 1.04 or 2.2 Liter, brown polypropylene bottles. Samples are filtered on precombusted Whatman GF/F 25mm under low vacuum pressure (40 mm Hg) Filter is removed, folded in half with the particulate part inside the fold and wrapped in precombusted aluminum foil. Samples are stored in Liquid Nitrogen and transferred post cruise to a -80 degrees Celsius freezer until processed. ; Method reference: Hedges, J.I. and J.H. Stern. 1984. Carbon and nitrogen determinations of carbonate-containing solids. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 657-663.; Researcher name: Antonio Mannino; Researcher institution: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • Parameter or Variable: particulate organic carbon; Abbreviation: POC; Unit: milligrams per cubic meter; Observation type: Profiule; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Typically three depths (surface, mix layer, and depth inbetween) are sampled via niskin bottle. POC/PN samples are collected in 0.5, 1.04 or 2.2 Liter, brown polypropylene bottles. Samples are filtered on precombusted Whatman GF/F 25mm under low vacuum pressure (40 mm Hg) Filter is removed, folded in half with the particulate part inside the fold and wrapped in precombusted aluminum foil. Samples are stored in Liquid Nitrogen and transferred post cruise to a -80 degrees Celsius freezer until processed. ; Method reference: Hedges, J.I. and J.H. Stern. 1984. Carbon and nitrogen determinations of carbonate-containing solids. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 657-663.; Researcher name: Antonio Mannino; Researcher institution: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • Parameter or Variable: Dissolved Organic Carbon; Abbreviation: DOC; Unit: micromol/kg; Observation type: Profile ; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Typically three depths (surface, mix layer, and depth inbetween) are sampled via niskin bottler. The samples were filtered under a gentle vacuum (less than 5 in Hg) through pre-combusted (6 hours at 450 degree C) 47mm GFF filters and separated into 2 or 3 (depending on depth) 40ml vials for DOC and one 125ml bottle for CDOM. The DOC vials were frozen and the CDOM bottles refrigerated. DOC and CDOM samples were analyzed by Antonio Mannino's laboratory at NASA Goddard.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Mannino, A., M. E. Russ, and S. B. Hooker (2008), Algorithm development and validation for satellite-derived distributions of DOC and CDOM in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07051, doi:10.1029/2007JC004493; Researcher name: Antonio Mannino; Researcher institution: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • Parameter or Variable: Colored dissolved organic matter at different wavelengths; Abbreviation: CDOM; Unit: milligrams per cubic meter; Observation type: Profile ; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Typically three depths (surface, mix layer, and depth inbetween) are sampled via niskin bottler. The samples were filtered under a gentle vacuum (less than 5 in Hg) through pre-combusted (6 hours at 450 degree C) 47mm GFF filters and separated into 2 or 3 (depending on depth) 40ml vials for DOC and one 125ml bottle for CDOM. The DOC vials were frozen and the CDOM bottles refrigerated. DOC and CDOM samples were analyzed by Antonio Mannino's laboratory at NASA Goddard.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Mannino, A., M. E. Russ, and S. B. Hooker (2008), Algorithm development and validation for satellite-derived distributions of DOC and CDOM in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07051, doi:10.1029/2007JC004493; Researcher name: Antonio Mannino; Researcher institution: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • Parameter or Variable: chlorophyll a concentration via pigment scan; Abbreviation: HPLC_chl_a; Unit: milligrams per cubic meter; Observation type: Profile; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples were taken with a niskin bottle from the surface, mix layer, and where applicable at a third depth between the surface and mix layer. The samples were run through precombusted (6 hours at 450 degree C) 25mm GFF filters, placed in precombusted aluminum foil, and stored in liquid nitrogen until analysis. ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Van Heukelem, L. and C.S. Thomas, 2001: Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments. J.Chromatogr. A, 910, 31-49.; Researcher name: Antonio Mannino; Researcher institution: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • Parameter or Variable: Net Primary Production; Abbreviation: NPP; Unit: micro-mol C l-1 d-1; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Whole water samples were taken with a niskin bottle from the surface, mix layer, and chlorophyll maximum and transferred into acid-cleaned 250 mL, 500mL, 1000ml or 2000ml PETG incubation bottles in triplicate. Primary productivity was measured by adding tracer additions (less than 10% of the ambient dissolved inorganic carbon) of NaH13CO2 and incubating for 12-24 hours in flow-through seawater incubators under neutral density screening. Dark bottles were also incubated. After 12-24 hours, incubations were terminated by filtration through pre-combusted (450 degree C for 2 h) GF/F filters. Filters were stored at -20 degree C until analysis in the laboratory. Filters were analyzed on a Europa 20/20 isotope ratio mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nitrogen and carbon analysis for gas, solids, and liquids (ANCA-GSL) preparation module. Analysis also resulted in particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate carbon (PC) values. ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Mulholland, M.R., Bernhardt, P.W., Heil, C.A., Bronk, D.A., O'Neil, J.M., 2006. Nitrogen fixation and release of fixed nitrogen by Trichodesmium spp. in the Gulf of Mexico. Limnology and Oceanography 51, 1762e1776. ; Researcher name: Margaret Mulholland; Researcher institution: Old Dominion University.
  • Parameter or Variable: Net Primary Production Particluate Carbon; Abbreviation: PC_NPP; Unit: micro-mol C/l; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Whole water samples were taken with a niskin bottle from the surface, mix layer, and chlorophyll maximum and transferred into acid-cleaned 250 mL, 500mL, 1000ml or 2000ml PETG incubation bottles in triplicate. Primary productivity was measured by adding tracer additions (less than 10% of the ambient dissolved inorganic carbon) of NaH13CO2 and incubating for 12-24 hours in flow-through seawater incubators under neutral density screening. Dark bottles were also incubated. After 12-24 hours, incubations were terminated by filtration through pre-combusted (450 degree C for 2 h) GF/F filters. Filters were stored at -20 degree C until analysis in the laboratory. Filters were analyzed on a Europa 20/20 isotope ratio mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nitrogen and carbon analysis for gas, solids, and liquids (ANCA-GSL) preparation module. Analysis also resulted in particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate carbon (PC) values. ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Mulholland, M.R., Bernhardt, P.W., Heil, C.A., Bronk, D.A., O'Neil, J.M., 2006. Nitrogen fixation and release of fixed nitrogen by Trichodesmium spp. in the Gulf of Mexico. Limnology and Oceanography 51, 1762e1776. ; Researcher name: Margaret Mulholland; Researcher institution: Old Dominion University.
  • Parameter or Variable: Net Primary Production Particulate Nitrogen; Abbreviation: PN_NPP; Unit: micro-mol N/l; In-situ / Manipulation / Response variable: In-situ observation; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle; Analyzing instrument: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Whole water samples were taken with a niskin bottle from the surface, mix layer, and chlorophyll maximum and transferred into acid-cleaned 250 mL, 500mL, 1000ml or 2000ml PETG incubation bottles in triplicate. Primary productivity was measured by adding tracer additions (less than 10% of the ambient dissolved inorganic carbon) of NaH13CO2 and incubating for 12-24 hours in flow-through seawater incubators under neutral density screening. Dark bottles were also incubated. After 12-24 hours, incubations were terminated by filtration through pre-combusted (450 degree C for 2 h) GF/F filters. Filters were stored at -20 degree C until analysis in the laboratory. Filters were analyzed on a Europa 20/20 isotope ratio mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nitrogen and carbon analysis for gas, solids, and liquids (ANCA-GSL) preparation module. Analysis also resulted in particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate carbon (PC) values. ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Mulholland, M.R., Bernhardt, P.W., Heil, C.A., Bronk, D.A., O'Neil, J.M., 2006. Nitrogen fixation and release of fixed nitrogen by Trichodesmium spp. in the Gulf of Mexico. Limnology and Oceanography 51, 1762e1776. ; Researcher name: Margaret Mulholland; Researcher institution: Old Dominion University.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • CTD
  • Niskin bottle
Platform
  • GORDON GUNTER
Last Modified: 2018-08-10T19:08:34
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