Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0162101)


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            title:  Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0162101)
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                date:  2017-04-18
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        abstract:  Two sets of CTD data were taken during the 2012 surveys of the Louisiana continental shelf—Transect C off Terrebonne Bay and Transect F off Atchafalaya Bay and the 2012 Shelfwide Hypoxia cruise. Hydrographic data were obtained with the LUMCON SeaBird 911+ CTD system and a YSI 6820. Nutrient, pigment, suspended sediment, surface salinity, secchi depth, Winkler results, and station information data were also acquired.
        purpose:  The physical, biological and chemical data collected are part of a long-term coastal Louisiana dataset. The goal is to understand physical and biological processes that contribute to the causes of hypoxia and use the data to support environmental models for use by resource managers. The size of the hypoxic area is part of the baseline data considered by the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Nutrient/Hypoxia Task Force.
        credit:  Related Funding Agency: US DOC; NOAA; NOS; National Center for Coastal Ocean Science; Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research (NOAA Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research - CCEHBR)
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0162101
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                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  Dataset Description
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/oas/162101
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                    name:  Descriptive Information
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/download/162101
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                    linkage: ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/nodc/archive/arc0106/0162101/
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0162101 v1.1 was published.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2017-04-18T16:43:27Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0162101 v1.1
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0162101/1.1
                                    protocol:  HTTP
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0162101 v1.1
                                    description:  NCEI Accession 0162101 v1.1
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: LATITUDE (measured); Units: decimal degrees; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Furuno GPS Navagation GP-90; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Cruise station positions were logged from RV Pelican's differential GPS at the beginning of sampling operations. In addition to the July Shelfwide monthly C+F cruises, YSI casts were made at stations C6C, and CSI-9 on a few dates from a small boat using a Garmin 12XL Personal Navigator.; Data Quality Information: GPS manufacturer's accuracy claim is 1-5 meters 95% of the time. Wind, currents and tidal forces may have moved the ship from the beginning position. The Garmin 12XL Personal Navigator manufacturer describes the unit as being accurate within 15 meters 95% of the time.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: LONGITUDE (measured); Units: decimal degrees; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Furuno GPS Navagation GP-90; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Cruise station positions were logged from RV Pelican's differential GPS at the beginning of sampling operations. In addition to the July Shelfwide monthly C+F cruises, YSI casts were made at stations C6C, and CSI-9 on a few dates from a small boat using a Garmin 12XL Personal Navigator.; Data Quality Information: GPS manufacturer's accuracy claim is 1-5 meters 95% of the time. Wind, currents and tidal forces may have moved the ship from the beginning position. The Garmin 12XL Personal Navigator manufacturer describes the unit as being accurate within 15 meters 95% of the time.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: DISSOLVED OXYGEN (measured); Units: mg/L; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 Oxygen sensor was serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service. Shipboard Winkler titrations during the cruises were used to develop regressions against the YSI data in case it was necessary to correct the oxygen data. YSI oxygen data were corrected for May, June, and July Shelfwide using an equation based on the results of the regression. Corrections were not available for August as Winklers were not collected. YSI and Seabird oxygen data did compare well together.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: CONDUCTIVITY (measured); Units: mS/cm; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 Conductivity sensors were serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: TEMPERATURE [WATER TEMPERATURE] (measured); Units: degrees Celsius; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 temperature sensor was serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: SALINITY (calculated); Units: psu; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 conductivity sensor was serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service. Small adjustments based on correlations with Portasal and YSI values were made to YSI salinity data for May, June, July Shelfwide, and August.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: OXYGEN - PERCENT SATURATION (calculated); Units: %; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 Conductivity, Oxygen, and temperature sensors were serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service. Shipboard Winkler titrations during the cruises were used to develop regressions against the YSI data in case it was necessary to correct the oxygen data. YSI oxygen data were corrected for May, June, and July Shelfwide using an equation based on the results of the regression. Corrections were not available for August as Winklers were not collected. YSI and Seabird oxygen data did compare well together.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: INSTRUMENT - DEPTH (measured); Units: meter; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 pressure sensor was serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: AMMONIUM (NH4) (measured); Units: micromole/liter; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Lachat QuikChem; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for nutrient analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for nutrient analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of nutrients in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Nutrient Methodology_Description: Care was taken that the collector's hands were clean and avoided touching the sample water. Gloves were worn when two replicate sample vials and caps were triple rinsed with sample before vial filling and closing. Samples were not filtered. The sample vials were frozen for later analysis in the laboratory. Lab Nutrient Methodology_Description: Ammonium samples were analyzed according to Lachat Instrument's QuikChem method 31-107-06-1-B.; Data Quality Information: Nutrient analyses were conducted using a QuikChem 8000 FIA+ (http://www.lachatinstruments.com). Charlie Milan performed the analyses under the supervision of R. E. Turner, LSU.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: nitrate + nitrite content (concentration) (measured); Units: micromole/liter; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Lachat QuikChem; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for nutrient analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for nutrient analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of nutrients in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Nutrient Methodology_Description: Care was taken that the collector's hands were clean and avoided touching the sample water. Gloves were worn when two replicate sample vials and caps were triple rinsed with sample before vial filling and closing. Samples were not filtered. The sample vials were frozen for later analysis in the laboratory. Lab Nutrient Methodology_Description: Nitrates and Nitrites were determined using Lachat Instrument's Method 31-107-04-1-C.; Data Quality Information: Nutrient analyses were conducted using a QuikChem 8000 FIA+ (http://www.lachatinstruments.com). Charlie Milan performed the analyses under the supervision of R. E. Turner, LSU.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: PHOSPHATE - INORGANIC [phosphate] (measured); Units: micromole/liter; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Lachat QuikChem; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for nutrient analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for nutrient analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of nutrients in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Nutrient Methodology_Description: Care was taken that the collector's hands were clean and avoided touching the sample water. Gloves were worn when two replicate sample vials and caps were triple rinsed with sample before vial filling and closing. Samples were not filtered. The sample vials were frozen for later analysis in the laboratory. Lab Nutrient Methodology_Description: Phosphates are determined by Lachat Instrument's QuikChem Method 31-115-01-1-H.; Data Quality Information: Nutrient analyses were conducted using a QuikChem 8000 FIA+ (http://www.lachatinstruments.com). Charlie Milan performed the analyses under the supervision of R. E. Turner, LSU.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: silicate (measured); Units: micromole/liter; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Lachat QuikChem; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for nutrient analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for nutrient analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations.Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of nutrients in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Nutrient Methodology_Description: Care was taken that the collector's hands were clean and avoided touching the sample water. Gloves were worn when two replicate sample vials and caps were triple rinsed with sample before vial filling and closing. Samples were not filtered. The sample vials were frozen for later analysis in the laboratory. Lab Nutrient Methodology_Description: Silicates were measured using Lachat Instrument's Method 31-114-27-1-C.; Data Quality Information: Nutrient analyses were conducted using a QuikChem 8000 FIA+ (http://www.lachatinstruments.com). Charlie Milan performed the analyses under the supervision of R. E. Turner, LSU.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: CHLOROPHYLL - EXTRACTED (measured); Units: microgram/liter; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Turner digital 10-AU; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for chlorophyll analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of chlorophyll in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Pigment Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analysis (10 - 100 ml) was filtered on board ship through GF/F (0.7 micron) filters, which were then fixed in 5 ml of DMSO/90% acetone (40/60) solution, allowed to extract for at least two hours in the dark, then measured pre- and post-acidification on a Turner Model 10 AU fluorometer.; Data Quality Information: The Turner Designs model 10 AU fluorometer was calibrated (3/21/2011) for chlorophyll a against a chemical supply house chlorophyll a standard measured on a spectrophotometer. Each time the fluorometer was moved, it was tested with a Turner 10-AU solid standard. During cruises, the fluorometer was blanked and calibrated daily in accordance with Turner Designs recommended procedures. Pigment measurements were supervised by Nancy Rabalais and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: PHAEOPIGMENT CONCENTRATION (measured); Units: microgram/liter; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Turner digital 10-AU; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for chlorophyll analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of chlorophyll in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Pigment Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analysis (10 - 100 ml) was filtered on board ship through GF/F (0.7 micron) filters, which were then fixed in 5 ml of DMSO/90% acetone (40/60) solution, allowed to extract for at least two hours in the dark, then measured pre- and post-acidification on a Turner Model 10 AU fluorometer.; Data Quality Information: The Turner Designs model 10 AU fluorometer was calibrated (3/21/2011) for chlorophyll a against a chemical supply house chlorophyll a standard measured on a spectrophotometer. Each time the fluorometer was moved, it was tested with a Turner 10-AU solid standard. During cruises, the fluorometer was blanked and calibrated daily in accordance with Turner Designs recommended procedures. Pigment measurements were supervised by Nancy Rabalais and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Total PIGMENTS (calculated); Units: microgram/liter; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Turner digital 10-AU; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for chlorophyll analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of chlorophyll in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Pigment Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analysis (10 - 100 ml) was filtered on board ship through GF/F (0.7 micron) filters, which were then fixed in 5 ml of DMSO/90% acetone (40/60) solution, allowed to extract for at least two hours in the dark, then measured pre- and post-acidification on a Turner Model 10 AU fluorometer.; Data Quality Information: The Turner Designs model 10 AU fluorometer was calibrated (3/21/2011) for chlorophyll a against a chemical supply house chlorophyll a standard measured on a spectrophotometer. Each time the fluorometer was moved, it was tested with a Turner 10-AU solid standard. During cruises, the fluorometer was blanked and calibrated daily in accordance with Turner Designs recommended procedures. Pigment measurements were supervised by Nancy Rabalais and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Mean Fo/Fa (calculated); Units: unitless; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Turner digital 10-AU; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for chlorophyll analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Mid water samples were collected at C6C and CSI-9 stations, for analysis of chlorophyll in 5-l Niskin bottles on the SeaBird CTD/rosette system or a messenger triggered 5-l Niskin on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field Pigment Methodology_Description: Water for chlorophyll analysis (10 - 100 ml) was filtered on board ship through GF/F (0.7 micron) filters, which were then fixed in 5 ml of DMSO/90% acetone (40/60) solution, allowed to extract for at least two hours in the dark, then measured pre- and post-acidification on a Turner Model 10 AU fluorometer.; Data Quality Information: The Turner Designs model 10 AU fluorometer was calibrated (3/21/2011) for chlorophyll a against a chemical supply house chlorophyll a standard measured on a spectrophotometer. Each time the fluorometer was moved, it was tested with a Turner 10-AU solid standard. During cruises, the fluorometer was blanked and calibrated daily in accordance with Turner Designs recommended procedures. Pigment measurements were supervised by Nancy Rabalais and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: SALINITY (measured); Units: psu; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Guildline Instruments Portasal; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for salinity analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom water samples for chlorophyll, nutrient, and salinity analyses were collected in a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire at all stations. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Field Salinity Methodology_Description: Water was collected in an acid-washed, triple-rinsed 500ml Nalgene jar from a twice-rinsed bucket of surface water. The jar lid was secured tightly to minimize evaporation. Salinity samples were only collected at stations along the C and F transects during the cruise. Lab Salinity Methodology_Description: Salinity samples were analyzed in the lab on a Guildline Instruments Portasal.; Data Quality Information: Salinity samples were analyzed in the lab by Guildline Instruments Portasal, using Guildline methods (http://www.guildline.ca/). Salinity analyses were conducted by Wendy Morrison under the supervision of Nancy Rabalais.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: DISSOLVED OXYGEN (measured); Units: mg/L; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: Mettler Toledo DL28 Titrator; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Winkler Methodology_Description: Water was collected from Niskin Bottle samples using a 300ml glass BOD bottle.  Care was taken so that air bubbles were not introduced into the water sample and titration reagents were added immediately to fix the oxygen. Stations and depths were selected as water samples for Winkler analysis based on homogeneity the oxygen profile around that depth, and the need for a distribution of oxygen values across the observed oxygen range. Lab Winkler Methodology_Description:Winkler samples were analyzed on board the R/V Pelican with a Mettler Toledo DL28 Titrator using dissolved oxygen determination methods outlined in A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis by Strickland and Parsons, 1977.; Data Quality Information: Winkler samples were analyzed on board the R/V Pelican with a Mettler Toledo DL28 Titrator using dissolved oxygen determination methods outlined in A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis by Strickland and Parsons, 1977.  Winkler analyses were conducted by Wendy Morrison under the supervision of Nancy Rabalais. N.B. Winklers were not collected or analysed during the August cruise.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: DEPTH - SENSOR (measured); Units: meter; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: SBE-9+, Paroscientific Digiquartz(r) pressure sensor; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: The Paroscientific Digiquartz(r) pressure sensor was factory tested and calibrated at Sea-Bird (http://www.seabird.com/) recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Sea-Bird procedures.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: SONAR ALTIMETER (measured); Units: meter; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Sonar Altimeter, Teledyne Benthos PSA-900; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: The Teledyne Benthos PSA-900 sonar altimeter was factory tested and calibrated at manufacturer recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff. N.B. Near bottom high altimeter values (>6.0 m) were deleted throughout the dataset, because probes were likely within 1 meter of the bottom.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) (measured); Units: % surface PAR; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Biospherical Instruments 2-QSP-200L & QSR Surface PAR; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: The Biospherical Instruments 2-QSP-200L in water PAR sensor and QSR Surface PAR sensor were factory tested and calibrated at manufacturer recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff. N.B. Throughout the dataset, Irradiance values > 100% were removed since these were a result of the sensor breaching the sea surface. The SPAR sensor was turned off during the Shelfwide cruise at station F5-2; data were removed. Additionally, during the June cruise, there was a sensor malfunction with the in water PAR sensor, values were exceptionally low throughout. It is likely that the sensor cap was left on); data were removed.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: LIGHT TRANSMISSION (measured); Units: percent; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Wetlabs Transmissometer; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: The Wet Labs C Star 10 cm path transmissometer was maintained by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Wet Labs recommendations.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: FLUORESCENCE (measured); Units: RFU; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Turner SCUFA Fluorometer; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. The SCUFA sensor were only included on Seabird casts during the July Shelfwide cruise at stations A'3,A'4,A'5,A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,B1,B2,B4,B6,B8,C6C,C7,C8,C9. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: The Turner SCUFA sensor was factory tested and calibrated at recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Turner procedures.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: TEMPERATURE - WATER [WATER TEMPERATURE] (measured); Units: degrees Celsius; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: SBE 3-01/F; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: Sea-Bird 3-01/F temperature sensors were factory tested and calibrated at Sea-Bird (http://www.seabird.com/) recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Sea-Bird procedures.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: CONDUCTIVITY (measured); Units: siemens/m; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: SBE 4-01/0; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: Sea-Bird SBE 4-01/0 Conductivity sensors were factory tested and calibrated at Sea-Bird (http://www.seabird.com/) recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Sea-Bird procedures.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: SALINITY (calculated); Units: psu; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: SBE 4-01/0; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: Sea-Bird SBE 4-01/0 Conductivity sensors were factory tested and calibrated at Sea-Bird (http://www.seabird.com/) recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Sea-Bird procedures. Small adjustments were made to May, June, July Shelfwide, and August salinity data, based on correlations with Portasal and SeaBird value.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: WATER DENSITY (calculated); Units: kilogram/meter^3; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: SBE CTD; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: The Paroscientific Digiquartz(r) pressure sensor, the SBE 3-01/F temperature sensors, SBE 5-01 pumps, and the SBE 4-01/0 Conductivity sensors were factory tested and calibrated at Sea-Bird (http://www.seabird.com/) recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Sea-Bird procedures. Small adjustments were made to May, June, July Shelfwide, and August salinity data, based on correlations with Portasal and SeaBird value. Density values were calculated using updated salinity data.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: DISSOLVED OXYGEN (measured); Units: mg/L; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: SBE 13-01; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: SBE 13-01 dissolved oxygen sensors and SBE 5-01 pumps were factory tested and calibrated at Sea-Bird (http://www.seabird.com/) recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Sea-Bird procedures. At the beginning of the monthly cruise, oxygen sensors were calibrated using the procedures described in SeaBird APPLICATION NOTE NO. 13-1, Rev. D. The Winkler Titration oxygen value was determined chemically from replicate samples processed using a Mettler DL21 Titrator (http://www.mt.com/). Shipboard Winkler titrations were performed during each cruise to develop regressions against the SeaBird data (in the event it was necessary to correct the oxygen data). SeaBird oxygen data were corrected for May, June, and July Shelfwide using an equation based on the results of the regression. Corrections were not available for August as Winklers were not collected. YSI and Seabird oxygen data did compare well together. Winkler titrations were conducted under the supervision of Nancy Rabalais. SeaBird data post processing was done by Leslie Smith and Wendy Morrison and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: OXYGEN - PERCENT SATURATION (calculated); Units: percent; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: SBE CTD; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: Sea-Bird SBE 13-01 dissolved oxygen sensors, the Paroscientific SBE 13-01 dissolved oxygen sensors and SBE 5-01 pumps were factory tested and calibrated at Sea-Bird (http://www.seabird.com/) recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with Sea-Bird procedures. At the beginning of the monthly cruise, oxygen sensors were calibrated using the procedures described in SeaBird APPLICATION NOTE NO. 13-1, Rev. D. The Winkler Titration oxygen value was determined chemically from replicate samples processed using a Mettler DL21 Titrator (http://www.mt.com/). Shipboard Winkler titrations were performed during each cruise to develop regressions against the SeaBird data (in the event it was necessary to correct the oxygen data). SeaBird oxygen data were corrected for May, June, and July Shelfwide using an equation based on the results of the regression. Corrections were not available for August as Winklers were not collected. YSI and Seabird oxygen data did compare well together. Winkler titrations were conducted under the supervision of Nancy Rabalais. SeaBird data post processing was done by Leslie Smith and Wendy Morrison and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: inorganic suspended particulate matter (measured); Units: mg/L; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: GF/F Filter; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for suspended sediment analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom and mid-water samples at C6C and CSI-9 were collected for suspended sediment analyses using a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field SPM Methodology_Description: Water (approximately 50 to 1500 ml) collected for suspended sediment samples was filtered on board ship through (pre-combusted, pre-weighed) GF/F filters and rinsed with distilled water. The filters were placed in Petri dishes and frozen for later analysis. Lab SPM Methodology_Description: Suspended sediment filters were dried overnight at 60°C and weighed. The filters were then combusted at 400°C for 12 hours and weighed. The weights of the total suspended, organic and inorganic materials were derived.; Data Quality Information: Suspended sediment concentrations were supervised and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais. N.B. Data for May and most of June have not been included in the dataset. Filter weighing was compromised due to the scale being serviced between pre and post filter weights and an offset from the servicing was not recorded.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: organic suspended particulate material (measured); Units: mg/L; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: GF/F Filter; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for suspended sediment analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom and mid-water samples at C6C and CSI-9 were collected for suspended sediment analyses using a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field SPM Methodology_Description: Water (approximately 50 to 1500 ml) collected for suspended sediment samples was filtered on board ship through (pre-combusted, pre-weighed) GF/F filters and rinsed with distilled water. The filters were placed in Petri dishes and frozen for later analysis. Lab SPM Methodology_Description: Suspended sediment filters were dried overnight at 60°C and weighed. The filters were then combusted at 400°C for 12 hours and weighed. The weights of the total suspended, organic and inorganic materials were derived.; Data Quality Information: Suspended sediment concentrations were supervised and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais. N.B. Data for May and most of June have not been included in the dataset. Filter weighing was compromised due to the scale being serviced between pre and post filter weights and an offset from the servicing was not recorded.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Total Suspended Sediments (measured); Units: mg/L; Observation Type: laboratory analysis; Sampling Instrument: GF/F Filter; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field water samples Methodology_Description: Water for suspended sediment analyses was collected from the surface by twice-rinsed bucket at all stations. Bottom and mid-water samples at C6C and CSI-9 were collected for suspended sediment analyses using a 5-l bottom tripping Niskin deployed on the YSI hydrowire. Depth values of "0" indicate a bucket sample collected from the surface of the water. Generally, deepest depths of water samples were from the bottom-tripping Niskin and correspond to the deepest depth recorded from the YSI. Midwater samples were collected using Niskin bottles on the SeaBird rosette. Depths for midwater samples were taken from corresponding Seabird data, adjusting for the SeaBird pressure sensor being located approximately 0.75 meters below the mid-point of the 5-L Niskin. Field SPM Methodology_Description: Water (approximately 50 to 1500 ml) collected for suspended sediment samples was filtered on board ship through (pre-combusted, pre-weighed) GF/F filters and rinsed with distilled water. The filters were placed in Petri dishes and frozen for later analysis. Lab SPM Methodology_Description: Suspended sediment filters were dried overnight at 60°C and weighed. The filters were then combusted at 400°C for 12 hours and weighed. The weights of the total suspended, organic and inorganic materials were derived.; Data Quality Information: Suspended sediment concentrations were supervised and quality controlled by Nancy Rabalais. N.B. Data for May and most of June have not been included in the dataset. Filter weighing was compromised due to the scale being serviced between pre and post filter weights and an offset from the servicing was not recorded.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: Time (measured); Units: Zulu; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Multiple Instrument Data Acquisition System (MIDAS); Data Quality Information: The RV Pelican's Multiple Instrument Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) is maintained by the ship's electronic staff.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: DEPTH - BOTTOM (measured); Units: meter; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Odom Echotrac II Fathometer; Sampling and Analyzing Method: During the July shelfwide cruise stations were occupied along 14 generally North-South transects across the Louisiana and Texas coastal shelves. Station depths ranged from 2.21 to 50.00 meters.; Data Quality Information: Station depths were logged from the ship's Odom Echotrac II (http://www.odomhydrographic.com/) fathometer. The Fathometer was calibrated and maintained by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff per manufacturer specifications.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: SALINITY - BOTTOM WATER (measured); Units: psu; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: Multiple Instrument Data Acquisition System (MIDAS); Data Quality Information: The RV Pelican's Multiple Instrument Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) is maintained by the ship's electronic staff.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: SECCHI DEPTH (measured); Units: meter; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: secchi disk; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Secchi disk depths were measured by hand using standard protocol. Secchi disk depths were only measured during daylight operations.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: pH (measured); Units: pH; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 pH probe was serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service. N.B. pH data are not included for the station C6C on June 5, 2012 due to a probe malfunction.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: pH (measured); Units: mV; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument; Sampling and Analyzing Method: The YSI CTD was attached by chain to a lead weight. The weight was lowered to the bottom by hydrowire. With the weight on the bottom, the sonde was positioned approximately 0.5 meters above the bottom. When the oxygen sensor stabilized, a data record of all the sensor values was stored electronically. During C+F Transect Cruises, the sonde was raised in approximately 1.0-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. When the YSI reached a depth of two to three meters from the surface, the sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface. During the Shelfwide cruise, due to limitations of time, mid-water depths were generally not sampled with the YSI. Instead, the sonde was raised in approximately 0.5-meter increments, after D.O. sensor stabilization, data records were stored. After storing data for the few meters closest to the bottom, the sonde was raised to two to three meters from the surface and a data record was saved. The sonde was raised, and records stored, in approximately 0.5-meter increments until finally a record was stored with the sonde submerged but as close as possible to the surface.; Data Quality Information: The YSI 6820 pH probe was serviced and calibrated before deployment and maintained in accordance with YSI (http://www.ysi.com/) recommended procedure. The Sonde and Logger are returned to the factory at least annually for inspection and service. N.B. pH data are not included for the station C6C on June 5, 2012 due to a probe malfunction.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Data Type: CDOM Fluorescence [Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM)] (measured); Units: mg/m^3; Observation Type: in situ; Sampling Instrument: WER Labs CDOM; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Field Seabird CTD Methodology_Description: The SeaBird CTD number of scans to average in the deck unit was set to one. At the beginning of each hydrocast the entire CTD/Rosette package was soaked while submerged 0.5m to 1.0m below the surface until pump flow and oxygen values observed via the Sea-Bird deck unit indicated the system was operating correctly. Sensor packages are located below the Niskin bottle rosette sampler. In order to minimize the effect of delays in oxygen sensor response time caused by temperature, sensor condition and plumbing configuration, the CTD package was lowered as close to dead slow as possible. The sensor packages were located below the Niskin bottles and rosette. At stations where the watch chief deemed the structure of the oxygen profile contained features useful in post-processing the oxygen data (AlignCTD), the CTD package was raised at the same speed it was lowered. At all other stations, the upcast was rapid in order to save time. Lab SeaBird CTD Methodology_Description: Sea-Bird CTD data were acquired using Seasoft and processed using SBE Data Processing-Win32 software. All scans were processed without averaging or interpolation with a bin size of one scan. In order to compensate for the delay in oxygen sensor response time and improve the alignment between oxygen sensor values and temperature and conductivity sensor values, the Seasoft module ALIGNCTD was used. See Field SeaBird CTD for selection process of which stations were used for alignment. After alignment, the DERIVE function was used to calculate Depth (m), Salinity (psu), Density sigma-t (kg/m3), Oxygen concentration (mg/L), and Oxygen percent saturation (%). Final data were exported as ascii files. A MATLAB program was used to select a water column profile made up of scans from the downcast of discrete 1-meter (or 0.1-m) measurements. The MATLAB program selected scans as follows: 1) Data from Seabird warm up period sitting on the surface were removed; 2) Upcast data were removed; 3) Data scans were selected at 1.0 meter increments through the water column; 3) When DO values changed significantly (> 1.0 mgO2/L) within 1-meter, scans at 0.1-m intervals were selected within that meter; 4) Minimum oxygen and maximum depth scans were selected.; Data Quality Information: The WET Labs CDOM sensor was factory tested and calibrated at recommended intervals and maintained and serviced by RV Pelican Electronic Technical support staff in accordance with WET Labs procedures. N.B. The cap was left on the CDOM sensor during the May F2A cast; data were removed.
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  CTD
            type:  CTD
            description:  Conductivity-Temperature-Depth probe
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  secchi disk
            type:  secchi disk
            description:  secchi disk
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument
            type:  YSI - handheld multi-parameter instrument
            description:  coastal instrument used to measure temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and other parameters
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  R/V Pelican
            description:  Flag: United States Title: R/V Vessel Type: Research Survey IMO: 8517009 DOB: 198505 Institution: LUMCON/UNOLS
            instrument: (missing)