Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH (on total scale) and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Extractor (DICE), Metrohm 876 Dosimat Plus, Agilent 8453 spectrometer and other instruments from R/V Roger Revelle in the Indian Ocean during the transit time on GO-SHIP sections I08S and I09N (EXPOCODEs 33RR20160208 and 33RR20160321) from 2016-02-08 to 2016-03-24 (NCEI Accession 0162262)

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NCEI Accession 0162262 consists of the surface measurements of salinity, oxygen, total inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH on total scale, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and NH4 collected under the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). GO-SHIP brings together scientists with interests in physical oceanography, the carbon cycle, marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems, and other users and collectors of ocean interior data, and coordinates a network of globally sustained hydrographic sections as part of the global ocean/climate observing system including physical oceanography, the carbon cycle, marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems.
  • Cite as: Swift, James H.; Barbero, Leticia; Wanninkhof, Rik; Dickson, Andrew G. (2017). Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH (on total scale) and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Extractor (DICE), Metrohm 876 Dosimat Plus, Agilent 8453 spectrometer and other instruments from R/V Roger Revelle in the Indian Ocean during the transit time on GO-SHIP sections I08S and I09N (EXPOCODEs 33RR20160208 and 33RR20160321) from 2016-02-08 to 2016-03-24 (NCEI Accession 0162262). Version 1.1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5TH8JXG [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0162262
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Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
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DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
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Time Period 2016-02-08 to 2016-03-24
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: -28.1
S: -65.3
E: 115.8
W: 76.3
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
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  • Dataset Description
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Publication Dates
  • publication: 2017-05-02
Edition 1.1
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Purpose To measure carbon, physical and biogeochemical parameters that complement continuous surface measurements such as pCO2.
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Swift, James H.; Barbero, Leticia; Wanninkhof, Rik; Dickson, Andrew G. (2017). Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH (on total scale) and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Extractor (DICE), Metrohm 876 Dosimat Plus, Agilent 8453 spectrometer and other instruments from R/V Roger Revelle in the Indian Ocean during the transit time on GO-SHIP sections I08S and I09N (EXPOCODEs 33RR20160208 and 33RR20160321) from 2016-02-08 to 2016-03-24 (NCEI Accession 0162262). Version 1.1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5TH8JXG [access date]
Cited Authors
  • Swift, James H.
  • Barbero, Leticia
  • Wanninkhof, Rik
  • Dickson, Andrew G.
Principal Investigators
Contributors
Resource Providers
Publishers
Acknowledgments
  • Funding Information: NOAA's Ocean Observations and Monitoring Division (Surface Water Measurements from Ships of Opportunity (SOOP))
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
Cruise ID
  • GO-SHIP_I08S
  • GO-SHIP_I09N
EXPOCODE
  • 33RR20160208
  • 33RR20160321
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ALKALINITY
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > AMMONIA
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > INORGANIC CARBON
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NUTRIENTS
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PH
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALINITY
Provider Variable Names
  • ALKALI
  • CTDTMP
  • DIC
  • NH4
  • NITRAT
  • NITRIT
  • OXYGEN
  • PHSPHT
  • SALNTY
  • SILCAT
  • pH
Reference Section ID
  • I08S/I09N
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/OAR/AOML > Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • SHIPS
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Ocean Acidification Instrument Keywords
  • Potentiometric titrator for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurement
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • OCEAN > INDIAN OCEAN
Provider Geographic Names
  • Indian Ocean
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Ocean Acidification Search Keywords
  • Ocean Carbon Data System (OCADS) Project
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Swift, James H.; Barbero, Leticia; Wanninkhof, Rik; Dickson, Andrew G. (2017). Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH (on total scale) and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Extractor (DICE), Metrohm 876 Dosimat Plus, Agilent 8453 spectrometer and other instruments from R/V Roger Revelle in the Indian Ocean during the transit time on GO-SHIP sections I08S and I09N (EXPOCODEs 33RR20160208 and 33RR20160321) from 2016-02-08 to 2016-03-24 (NCEI Accession 0162262). Version 1.1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5TH8JXG [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
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Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2017-05-02T12:11:07 - NCEI Accession 0162262 v1.1 was published.
Output Datasets
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Processing Steps
  • Parameter or Variable: Dissolved Inorganic Carbon; Abbreviation: DIC; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surface underway; Measured or calculated: Measured; Sampling instrument: flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Two systems consisting of a coulometer (UIC Inc.) coupled with a Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Extractor (DICE) inlet system. DICE was developed by Esa Peltola and Denis Pierrot of NOAA/AOML and Dana Greeley of NOAA/PMEL to modernize a carbon extractor called SOMMA (Johnson et al. 1985, 1987, 1993, and 1999; Johnson 1992); Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measurements were drawn according to procedures outlined in the Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements (Dickson et al., 2007) from the underway line into cleaned 294-ml glass bottles. Bottles were rinsed and filled from the bottom, leaving 6 ml of headspace; care was taken not to entrain any bubbles. After 0.2 ml of saturated HgCl2 solution was added as a preservative, the sample bottles were sealed with glass stoppers lightly covered with Apiezon-L grease and were stored at room temperature to be sent back to the lab for analysis after the cruise. The analysis was done by coulometry with two analytical systems (AOML3 and AOML4) used simultaneously. In the coulometric analysis of DIC, all carbonate species are converted to CO2 (gas) by addition of excess hydrogen ion (acid) to the seawater sample, and the evolved CO2 gas is swept into the titration cell of the coulometer with pure air or compressed nitrogen, where it reacts quantitatively with a proprietary reagent based on ethanolamine to generate hydrogen ions. In this process, the solution changes from blue to colorless, triggering a current through the cell and causing coulometrical generation of OH minus ions at the anode. The OH ions react with the H+, and the solution turns blue again. A beam of light is shone through the solution, and a photometric detector at the opposite side of the cell senses the change in transmission. Once the percent transmission reaches its original value, the coulometric titration is stopped, and the amount of CO2 that enters the cell is determined by integrating the total charge during the titration. The volume of the pipette used to deliver the sample in each system was determined with aliquots of distilled water at known temperature. The weights with the appropriate densities were used to determine the volume of the pipette. Calculation of the amount of CO2 injected was according to the CO2 handbook (Dickson et al., 2007).The instrument has a salinity sensor, but all DIC values were recalculated to a molar weight (micro-mol/kg) using density obtained from the CTD salinity. The DIC values were corrected for dilution by 0.2 ml of saturated HgCl2 used for sample preservation (Measured DIC*1.00037). A correction was also applied for the offset from the CRM. This additive correction was applied for each cell using the CRM value obtained in the beginning of the cell. Please consult the accompanying Readme file for additional details. ; Replicate information: 14 sets of duplicate samples, with an average difference of 1.24 μmol/kg and an average STDEV of 0.88.; Standardization description: The coulometers were calibrated by injecting aliquots of pure CO2 (99.99%) by means of an 8-port valve outfitted with two sample loops with known gas volumes bracketing the amount of CO2 extracted from the water samples for the two AOML systems.; Standardization frequency: The stability of each coulometer cell solution was confirmed three different ways: two sets of gas loops were measured at the beginning; also the Certified Reference Material (CRM), supplied by Dr. A. Dickson of UCSD, were measured at the beginning; and the duplicate samples at the beginning, middle, and end of each cell solution. The coulometer cell solution was replaced after 25 mg of carbon was titrated, typically after 9 to 12 hours of continuous use.; CRM manufacturer: Dr. A. Dickson of SIO, UCSD; CRM batch number: Batch 152; Poison name: saturated HgCl2; Poison volume: 0.2 mL; Poison correction: The DIC values were corrected for dilution by 0.2 ml of saturated HgCl2 used for sample preservation. The total water volume of the sample bottles was 288 ml (calibrated by Esa Peltola, AOML). The correction factor used for dilution was 1.00037.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Dickson, A.G., Sabine, C.L. and Christian, J.R. (Eds.) 2007. Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements. PICES Special Publication 3, 191 pp. Johnson, K.M., Körtzinger, A.; Mintrop, L.; Duinker, J.C.; and Wallace, D.W.R. (1999). Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Measurement and internal consistency of underway surface TCO2 concentrations. Marine Chemistry 67:123 to 44. Johnson, K.M., Wills, K.D.; Butler, D.B.; Johnson, W.K.; and Wong, C.S. (1993). Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Maximizing the performance of an automated gas extraction. Johnson, K.M. (1992). Operator Manual: Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA) for Total Carbon Dioxide (CT) with Coulometric Detection. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven, N.Y. Johnson, K.M.; Williams, P.J.; Brandstrom, L.; and McN. Sieburth, J. (1987). Coulometric total carbon analysis for marine studies: Automation and calibration. Marine Chemistry 21:117 to 33.; Researcher name: Rik Wanninkhof; Researcher institution: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
  • Parameter or Variable: Total alkalinity; Abbreviation: ALKALI; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surface underway; Measured or calculated: measured; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Metrohm 876 Dosimat Plus is used for all standardized hydrochloric acid additions. An Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition/Switch Unit with a 34901A multiplexer is used to read the voltage measurements from the electrode and monitor the temperatures from the sample, acid, and room. The calculations for this procedure are performed automatically using LabVIEW 2012.; Type of titration: Full Titration; Cell type (open or closed): Open; Curve fitting method: Least-Square Analysis; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples are dispensed using a Sample Delivery System (SDS) consisting of a volumetric pipette, various relay valves, and two air pumps controlled by LabVIEW 2012. Before filling the jacketed cell with a new sample for analysis, the volumetric pipette is cleared of any residual from the previous sample with the aforementioned air pumps. The pipette is then rinsed with new sample and filled, allowing for overflow and time for the sample temperature to equilibrate. The sample bottle temperature is measured using a DirecTemp thermistor probe inserted into the sample bottle and the volumetric pipette temperature is measured using a DirecTemp surface probe placed directly on the pipette. These temperature measurements are used to convert the sample volume to mass for analysis. Samples are analyzed using an open cell titration procedure using two 250 mL jacketed cells. One sample is undergoing titration while the second is being prepared and equilibrating to 20C for analysis. After an initial aliquot of approximately 2.3-2.4 mL of standardized hydrochloric acid (~0.1M HCl in ~0.6M NaCl solution), the sample is stirred for 5 minutes while air is bubbled into it at a rate of 200 scc/m to remove any liberated carbon dioxide gas. A Metrohm 876 Dosimat Plus is used for all standardized hydrochloric acid additions. After equilibration, ~19 aliquots of 0.04 ml are added. Between the pH range of 3.5 to 3.0, the progress of the titration is monitored using a pH glass electrode/reference electrode cell, and the total alkalinity is computed from the titrant volume and e.m.f. measurements using a non-linear least-squares approach ([Dickson2007]). An Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition/Switch Unit with a 34901A multiplexer is used to read the voltage measurements from the electrode and monitor the temperatures from the sample, acid, and room. The calculations for this procedure are performed automatically using LabVIEW 2012.; Replicate information: Two Niskin bottles at each station were sampled twice for duplicate measurements except for stations where 15 or less Niskin bottles were sampled; Standardization description: At least one reference material was analyzed at every station resulting in 108 (I08S) and 110 (I09N) reference material analyses. ; Standardization frequency: All values were directly measured with reference to Certified Reference Material (Dickson, UCSD). ; CRM manufacturer: Dr. A. Dickson of SIO, UCSD; CRM batch number: CRM batch: 152 and 153; Poison name: saturated HgCl2; Poison volume: 0.2 ml; Uncertainty: The precision of this method is better than 0.1% and accuracy is 0.1%.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Dickson, A.G., Sabine, C.L. and Christian, J.R. (Eds.), (2007): Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements. PICES Special Publication 3, 191 pp.; Researcher name: Andrew Dickson; Researcher institution: SIO, UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: pH; Abbreviation: pH; pH scale: Total; Observation type: surface underway; Measured or calculated: measured; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Agilent 8453 spectrometer setup with a custom-made temperature-controlled cell holder; Temperature of pH measurement: 25 (+/- 0.05) degrees Celsius; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples were collected in 250 mL Pyrex glass bottles and sealed using grey butyl rubber stoppers held in place by aluminum-crimped caps. Each bottle was rinsed two times and allowed to overflow by one additional bottle volume. Prior to sealing, each sample was given a 1% headspace and poisoned with 0.02% of the sample volume of saturated mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Samples were collected only from Niskin bottles that were also being sampled for both total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon in order to completely characterize the carbon system. Additionally, two duplicate samples were collected from almost all stations for quality control purposes. pH was measured spectrophotometrically on the total hydrogen scale using an Agilent 8453 spectrophotometer and in accordance with the methods outlined by Carter et al., 2013 [Carter2013]. A Kloehn V6 syringe pump was used to autonomously fill, mix, and dispense sample through the custom 10cm flow-through jacketed cell. A Thermo NESLAB RTE-7 recirculating water bath was used to maintain the cell temperature at 25.0 degC during analyses, and a YSI 4600 precision thermometer and probe were used to monitor and record the temperature of each sample immediately after the spectrophotometric measurements were taken. The indicator meta-cresol purple (mCP) was used to measure the absorbance of light measured at two different wavelengths (434 nm, 578 nm) corresponding to the maximum absorbance peaks for the acidic and basic forms of the indicator dye. A baseline absorbance was also measured and subtracted from these wavelengths. The baseline absorbance was determined by averaging the absorbances from 725-735nm. The ratio of the absorbances was then used to calculate pH on the total scale using the equations outlined in Liu et al., 2011 [Liu2011]. The salinity data used was obtained from the conductivity sensor on the CTD.; Replicate information: Two duplicate and two replicate measurements were performed on every station when at least fifteen Niskins were sampled. If less than fifteen Niskins were sampled, only one duplicate and one replicate measurement were performed.; Standardization description: The precision of the data was assessed from measurements of duplicate analyses, replicate analyses (two successive measurements on one bottle), and certified reference material (CRM) Batch 152 and Batch 153 (provided by Dr. Andrew Dickson, UCSD).; At what temperature was pH reported: 25 degrees Celsius; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Liu, X.; Patsavas, M.C.; and Byrne, R. H. (2011). Purification and characterization of meta-cresol purple for spectrophotometric seawater pH measurements. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(11), 4862-4868. doi: 10.1021/es200665d; Researcher name: Andrew Dickson; Researcher institution: SIO, UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Sea Surface Temperature; Abbreviation: CTDTMP; Unit: degrees celcius; Observation type: Surface Underway; Analyzing instrument: CTD ; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: In Bow Thruster room, about 1m after the intake which is directly through the ship's hull, before the SW pump; Uncertainty: plus or minus 0.001 degrees celsius; Researcher name: Jim Swift; Researcher institution: SIO, UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Sea Surface Salinity; Abbreviation: SALNTY; Observation type: Surface Underway; Analyzing instrument: CTD ; Uncertainty: plus or minus 0.01 PSS-78; Researcher name: James Swift; Researcher institution: SIO/UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Dissolved Oxygen; Abbreviation: OXYGEN; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surfase underway; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Dissolved oxygen analyses were performed with an SIO/ODF-designed automated oxygen titrator using photometric end-point detection based on the absorption of 365nm wavelength ultra-violet light. The titration of the samples and the data logging were controlled by PC LabView software.; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Samples were collected for dissolved oxygen analyses soon after the rosette was brought on board. Using a silicone drawing tube, nominal 125ml volume-calibrated iodine flasks were rinsed 3 times with minimal agitation, then filled and allowed to overflow for at least 3 flask volumes. The sample drawing temperatures were measured with an electronic resistance temperature detector (RTD) embedded in the drawing tube. These temperatures were used to calculate μmol/kg concentrations, and as a diagnostic check of bottle integrity. Reagents (MnCl2 then NaI/NaOH) were added to fix the oxygen before stoppering. The flasks were shaken twice (10-12 inversions) to assure thorough dispersion of the precipitate, once immediately after drawing, and then again after about 30-40 minutes. The samples were analyzed within 2-14 hours of collection, and the data incorporated into the cruise database. Thiosulfate was dispensed by a Dosimat 765 buret driver fitted with a 1.0 ml burette. ODF used a whole-bottle modified-Winkler titration following the technique of Carpenter [Carpenter1965] with modifications by [Culberson1991] but with higher concentrations of potassium iodate standard approximately 0.012N, and thiosulfate solution approximately 55 gm/l. Pre-made liquid potassium iodate standards were run every day (approximately every 4-5 stations), unless changes were made to the system or reagents. Reagent/distilled water blanks were determined every day or more often if a change in reagents required it to account for presence of oxidizing or reducing agents.; Uncertainty: Liquid potassium iodate standards were prepared in 6 liter batches and bottled in sterile glass bottles at ODF's chemistry laboratory prior to the expedition. The normality of the liquid standard was determined by calculation from weight. The standard was supplied by Alfa Aesar and has a reported purity of 99.4-100.4%. All other reagents were "reagent grade" and were tested for levels of oxidizing and reducing impurities prior to use.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Culberson, C. H., Knapp, G., Stalcup, M., Williams, R. T., and Zemlyak, F. A comparison of methods for the deter mination of dissolved oxygen in seawater. Report WHPO 91-2, WOCE Hydrographic Programme Office (Aug 1991).; Researcher name: James Swift; Researcher institution: SIO/UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Silicate; Abbreviation: SILCAT; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surfase underway; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Nutrient analyses (phosphate, silicate, nitrate+nitrite, and nitrite) were performed on a Seal Analytical continuous-flow AutoAnalyzer 3 (AA3).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were drawn into 40 ml polypropylene screw-capped centrifuge tubes. The tubes and caps were cleaned with 10% HCl and rinsed 2-3 times with sample before filling. Samples were analyzed within 1-3 hours after sample collection, allowing sufficient time for all samples to reach room temperature. The centrifuge tubes fit directly onto the sampler. The methods used are described by Gordon et al. 1992; Hager et al. 1972, and Atlas et al.1971. Details of modification of analytical methods used in this cruise are also compatible with the methods described in the nutrient section of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography manual (Hydes et al., 2010). Silicate was analyzed using the basic method of Armstrong et al. (1967). Acidified ammonium molybdate was added to a seawater sample to produce silicomolybdic acid which was then reduced to silicomolybdous acid (a blue compound) following the addition of stannous chloride. The sample was passed through a 10mm flowcell and measured at 660nm.; Uncertainty: Primary standards for silicate (Na2SiF6), nitrate (KNO3), nitrite (NaNO2), and phosphate (KH2PO4) were obtained from Johnson Matthey Chemical Co. and/or Fisher Scientific. The supplier reports purities of >98%, 99.999%, 97%, and 99.999 respectively. All glass volumetric flasks and pipettes were gravimetrically calibrated prior to the cruise. The primary standards were dried and weighed out to 0.1mg prior to the cruise. The exact weight was noted for future reference. When primary standards were made, the flask volume at 20C, the weight of the powder, and the temperature of the solution were used to buoyancy-correct the weight, calculate the exact concentration of the solution, and determine how much of the primary was needed for the desired concentrations of secondary standard. Primary and secondary standards were made up every 7-10days. The new standards were compared to the old before use. All the reagent solutions, primary and secondary standards were made with fresh distilled deionized water (DIW). Standardizations were performed at the beginning of each group of analyses with working standards prepared prior to each run from a secondary. Working standards were made up in low nutrient seawater (LNSW). LNSW used for this cruise was deep water collected at a test station at the beginning of the cruise track. The actual concentration of nutrients in this water was empirically determined during the standardization calculations.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Hydes, D.J., Aoyama, M., Aminot, A., Bakker, K., Becker, S., Coverly, S., Daniel,A.,Dickson,A.G., Grosso, O., Kerouel, R., Ooijen, J. van, Sato, K., Tanhua, T.,Woodward, E.M.S., Zhang, J.Z., 2010. Determination of Dissolved Nutrients (N, P, Si) in Seawater with High Precision and Inter-Comparability Using Gas-Segmented Continuous Flow Analysers, In: GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. IOCCP Report No. 14, ICPO Publication Series No 134. Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.A., and Strickland, J.D.H. The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Research, 14, pp.381-389 (1967).; Researcher name: James Swift; Researcher institution: SIO/UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Nitrate; Abbreviation: NITRAT; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surfase underway; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Nutrient analyses (phosphate, silicate, nitrate+nitrite, and nitrite) were performed on a Seal Analytical continuous-flow AutoAnalyzer 3 (AA3).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were drawn into 40 ml polypropylene screw-capped centrifuge tubes. The tubes and caps were cleaned with 10% HCl and rinsed 2-3 times with sample before filling. Samples were analyzed within 1-3 hours after sample collection, allowing sufficient time for all samples to reach room temperature. The centrifuge tubes fit directly onto the sampler. The methods used are described by Gordon et al. 1992; Hager et al. 1972, and Atlas et al.1971. Details of modification of analytical methods used in this cruise are also compatible with the methods described in the nutrient section of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography manual (Hydes et al., 2010). A modification of the Armstrong et al. (1967) [Armstrong1967] procedure was used for the analysis of nitrate and nitrite. For nitrate analysis, a seawater sample was passed through a cadmium column where the nitrate was reduced to nitrite. This nitrite was then diazotized with sulfanilamide and coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine to form a red dye. The sample was then passed through a 10mm flowcell and absorbance measured at 540nm. The procedure was the same for the nitrite analysis but without the cadmium column.; Uncertainty: Primary standards for silicate (Na2SiF6), nitrate (KNO3), nitrite (NaNO2), and phosphate (KH2PO4) were obtained from Johnson Matthey Chemical Co. and/or Fisher Scientific. The supplier reports purities of >98%, 99.999%, 97%, and 99.999 respectively. All glass volumetric flasks and pipettes were gravimetrically calibrated prior to the cruise. The primary standards were dried and weighed out to 0.1mg prior to the cruise. The exact weight was noted for future reference. When primary standards were made, the flask volume at 20C, the weight of the powder, and the temperature of the solution were used to buoyancy-correct the weight, calculate the exact concentration of the solution, and determine how much of the primary was needed for the desired concentrations of secondary standard. Primary and secondary standards were made up every 7-10days. The new standards were compared to the old before use. All the reagent solutions, primary and secondary standards were made with fresh distilled deionized water (DIW). Standardizations were performed at the beginning of each group of analyses with working standards prepared prior to each run from a secondary. Working standards were made up in low nutrient seawater (LNSW). LNSW used for this cruise was deep water collected at a test station at the beginning of the cruise track. The actual concentration of nutrients in this water was empirically determined during the standardization calculations.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Hydes, D.J., Aoyama, M., Aminot, A., Bakker, K., Becker, S., Coverly, S., Daniel,A.,Dickson,A.G., Grosso, O., Kerouel, R., Ooijen, J. van, Sato, K., Tanhua, T.,Woodward, E.M.S., Zhang, J.Z., 2010. Determination of Dissolved Nutrients (N, P, Si) in Seawater with High Precision and Inter-Comparability Using Gas-Segmented Continuous Flow Analysers, In: GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. IOCCP Report No. 14, ICPO Publication Series No 134. Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.A., and Strickland, J.D.H. The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Research, 14, pp.381-389 (1967).; Researcher name: James Swift; Researcher institution: SIO/UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Nitrite; Abbreviation: NITRIT; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surfase underway; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Nutrient analyses (phosphate, silicate, nitrate+nitrite, and nitrite) were performed on a Seal Analytical continuous-flow AutoAnalyzer 3 (AA3).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were drawn into 40 ml polypropylene screw-capped centrifuge tubes. The tubes and caps were cleaned with 10% HCl and rinsed 2-3 times with sample before filling. Samples were analyzed within 1-3 hours after sample collection, allowing sufficient time for all samples to reach room temperature. The centrifuge tubes fit directly onto the sampler. The methods used are described by Gordon et al. 1992; Hager et al. 1972, and Atlas et al.1971. Details of modification of analytical methods used in this cruise are also compatible with the methods described in the nutrient section of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography manual (Hydes et al., 2010). A modification of the Armstrong et al. (1967) [Armstrong1967] procedure was used for the analysis of nitrate and nitrite. For nitrate analysis, a seawater sample was passed through a cadmium column where the nitrate was reduced to nitrite. This nitrite was then diazotized with sulfanilamide and coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine to form a red dye. The sample was then passed through a 10mm flowcell and absorbance measured at 540nm. The procedure was the same for the nitrite analysis but without the cadmium column.; Uncertainty: Primary standards for silicate (Na2SiF6), nitrate (KNO3), nitrite (NaNO2), and phosphate (KH2PO4) were obtained from Johnson Matthey Chemical Co. and/or Fisher Scientific. The supplier reports purities of >98%, 99.999%, 97%, and 99.999 respectively. All glass volumetric flasks and pipettes were gravimetrically calibrated prior to the cruise. The primary standards were dried and weighed out to 0.1mg prior to the cruise. The exact weight was noted for future reference. When primary standards were made, the flask volume at 20C, the weight of the powder, and the temperature of the solution were used to buoyancy-correct the weight, calculate the exact concentration of the solution, and determine how much of the primary was needed for the desired concentrations of secondary standard. Primary and secondary standards were made up every 7-10days. The new standards were compared to the old before use. All the reagent solutions, primary and secondary standards were made with fresh distilled deionized water (DIW). Standardizations were performed at the beginning of each group of analyses with working standards prepared prior to each run from a secondary. Working standards were made up in low nutrient seawater (LNSW). LNSW used for this cruise was deep water collected at a test station at the beginning of the cruise track. The actual concentration of nutrients in this water was empirically determined during the standardization calculations.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Hydes, D.J., Aoyama, M., Aminot, A., Bakker, K., Becker, S., Coverly, S., Daniel,A.,Dickson,A.G., Grosso, O., Kerouel, R., Ooijen, J. van, Sato, K., Tanhua, T.,Woodward, E.M.S., Zhang, J.Z., 2010. Determination of Dissolved Nutrients (N, P, Si) in Seawater with High Precision and Inter-Comparability Using Gas-Segmented Continuous Flow Analysers, In: GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. IOCCP Report No. 14, ICPO Publication Series No 134. Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.A., and Strickland, J.D.H. The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Research, 14, pp.381-389 (1967).; Researcher name: James Swift; Researcher institution: SIO/UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Phosphate; Abbreviation: PHSPHT; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surfase underway; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Nutrient analyses (phosphate, silicate, nitrate+nitrite, and nitrite) were performed on a Seal Analytical continuous-flow AutoAnalyzer 3 (AA3).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were drawn into 40 ml polypropylene screw-capped centrifuge tubes. The tubes and caps were cleaned with 10% HCl and rinsed 2-3 times with sample before filling. Samples were analyzed within 1-3 hours after sample collection, allowing sufficient time for all samples to reach room temperature. The centrifuge tubes fit directly onto the sampler. The methods used are described by Gordon et al. 1992; Hager et al. 1972, and Atlas et al.1971. Details of modification of analytical methods used in this cruise are also compatible with the methods described in the nutrient section of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography manual (Hydes et al., 2010). A modification of the Armstrong et al. (1967) [Armstrong1967] procedure was used for the analysis of nitrate and nitrite. For nitrate analysis, a seawater sample was passed through a cadmium column where the nitrate was reduced to nitrite. This nitrite was then diazotized with sulfanilamide and coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine to form a red dye. The sample was then passed through a 10mm flowcell and absorbance measured at 540nm. The procedure was the same for the nitrite analysis but without the cadmium column.; Uncertainty: Primary standards for silicate (Na2SiF6), nitrate (KNO3), nitrite (NaNO2), and phosphate (KH2PO4) were obtained from Johnson Matthey Chemical Co. and/or Fisher Scientific. The supplier reports purities of >98%, 99.999%, 97%, and 99.999 respectively. All glass volumetric flasks and pipettes were gravimetrically calibrated prior to the cruise. The primary standards were dried and weighed out to 0.1mg prior to the cruise. The exact weight was noted for future reference. When primary standards were made, the flask volume at 20C, the weight of the powder, and the temperature of the solution were used to buoyancy-correct the weight, calculate the exact concentration of the solution, and determine how much of the primary was needed for the desired concentrations of secondary standard. Primary and secondary standards were made up every 7-10days. The new standards were compared to the old before use. All the reagent solutions, primary and secondary standards were made with fresh distilled deionized water (DIW). Standardizations were performed at the beginning of each group of analyses with working standards prepared prior to each run from a secondary. Working standards were made up in low nutrient seawater (LNSW). LNSW used for this cruise was deep water collected at a test station at the beginning of the cruise track. The actual concentration of nutrients in this water was empirically determined during the standardization calculations.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Hydes, D.J., Aoyama, M., Aminot, A., Bakker, K., Becker, S., Coverly, S., Daniel,A.,Dickson,A.G., Grosso, O., Kerouel, R., Ooijen, J. van, Sato, K., Tanhua, T.,Woodward, E.M.S., Zhang, J.Z., 2010. Determination of Dissolved Nutrients (N, P, Si) in Seawater with High Precision and Inter-Comparability Using Gas-Segmented Continuous Flow Analysers, In: GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. IOCCP Report No. 14, ICPO Publication Series No 134. Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.A., and Strickland, J.D.H. The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Research, 14, pp.381-389 (1967).; Researcher name: James Swift; Researcher institution: SIO/UCSD.
  • Parameter or Variable: Ammonia; Abbreviation: NH4; Unit: UMOL/KG; Observation type: surfase underway; Sampling instrument: Flow through system; Analyzing instrument: Nutrient analyses (phosphate, silicate, nitrate+nitrite, and nitrite) were performed on a Seal Analytical continuous-flow AutoAnalyzer 3 (AA3).; Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Nutrient samples were drawn into 40 ml polypropylene screw-capped centrifuge tubes. The tubes and caps were cleaned with 10% HCl and rinsed 2-3 times with sample before filling. Samples were analyzed within 1-3 hours after sample collection, allowing sufficient time for all samples to reach room temperature. The centrifuge tubes fit directly onto the sampler. The methods used are described by Gordon et al. 1992; Hager et al. 1972, and Atlas et al.1971. Details of modification of analytical methods used in this cruise are also compatible with the methods described in the nutrient section of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography manual (Hydes et al., 2010). A modification of the Armstrong et al. (1967) [Armstrong1967] procedure was used for the analysis of nitrate and nitrite. For nitrate analysis, a seawater sample was passed through a cadmium column where the nitrate was reduced to nitrite. This nitrite was then diazotized with sulfanilamide and coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine to form a red dye. The sample was then passed through a 10mm flowcell and absorbance measured at 540nm. The procedure was the same for the nitrite analysis but without the cadmium column.; Uncertainty: Primary standards for silicate (Na2SiF6), nitrate (KNO3), nitrite (NaNO2), and phosphate (KH2PO4) were obtained from Johnson Matthey Chemical Co. and/or Fisher Scientific. The supplier reports purities of >98%, 99.999%, 97%, and 99.999 respectively. All glass volumetric flasks and pipettes were gravimetrically calibrated prior to the cruise. The primary standards were dried and weighed out to 0.1mg prior to the cruise. The exact weight was noted for future reference. When primary standards were made, the flask volume at 20C, the weight of the powder, and the temperature of the solution were used to buoyancy-correct the weight, calculate the exact concentration of the solution, and determine how much of the primary was needed for the desired concentrations of secondary standard. Primary and secondary standards were made up every 7-10days. The new standards were compared to the old before use. All the reagent solutions, primary and secondary standards were made with fresh distilled deionized water (DIW). Standardizations were performed at the beginning of each group of analyses with working standards prepared prior to each run from a secondary. Working standards were made up in low nutrient seawater (LNSW). LNSW used for this cruise was deep water collected at a test station at the beginning of the cruise track. The actual concentration of nutrients in this water was empirically determined during the standardization calculations.; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value, 5 = value not reported, 6 = mean of replicate measurements, 9 = sample not drawn.; Method reference: Hydes, D.J., Aoyama, M., Aminot, A., Bakker, K., Becker, S., Coverly, S., Daniel,A.,Dickson,A.G., Grosso, O., Kerouel, R., Ooijen, J. van, Sato, K., Tanhua, T.,Woodward, E.M.S., Zhang, J.Z., 2010. Determination of Dissolved Nutrients (N, P, Si) in Seawater with High Precision and Inter-Comparability Using Gas-Segmented Continuous Flow Analysers, In: GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. IOCCP Report No. 14, ICPO Publication Series No 134. Armstrong, F.A.J., Stearns, C.A., and Strickland, J.D.H. The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Research, 14, pp.381-389 (1967).; Researcher name: James Swift; Researcher institution: SIO/UCSD.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • titrator
Platform
  • ROGER REVELLE
Last Modified: 2018-04-25T21:20:42
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