Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Database Version 5 (SOCATv5) (NCEI Accession 0163180)

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The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT, www.socat.info) is a synthesis activity by the international marine carbon research community and has more than 100 contributors worldwide. SOCAT provides access to synthesis and gridded, quality controlled, observational products of surface ocean fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) for the global oceans and coastal seas. SOCAT version 5 has 21.5 million, in situ, surface ocean fCO2 measurements with an accuracy of better than 5 μatm and a WOCE flag of 2 (good) from 1957 to 2016. Calibrated sensor data with an accuracy of better than 10 μatm are also available.

During quality control, marine scientists assign a flag to each data set, as well as WOCE flags of 2 (good), 3 (questionable) or 4 (bad) to individual fCO2 values. Data sets are assigned flags of A and B for an accuracy of better than 2 μatm, flags of C and D for an accuracy of better than 5 μatm and a flag of E for an accuracy of better than 10 μatm. Bakker et al. (2016) describe the quality control criteria used in SOCAT versions 3 to 5. Quality control comments for individual data sets can be accessed via the SOCAT Data Set Viewer (www.socat.info).

All data sets, where data quality has been deemed acceptable, have been made public. The main SOCAT synthesis files and the gridded products contain all data sets with flags of A to D and fCO2 values with a flag of 2. Access to data sets with a flag of E and fCO2 values with flags of 3 and 4 is via additional data products and the Data Set Viewer (Table 8 in Bakker et al., 2016).

SOCAT publishes a global gridded product with a 1° longitude by 1° latitude resolution. A second product with a higher resolution of 0.25° longitude by 0.25° latitude is available for the coastal seas. Gridded products are available monthly, per year and per decade. Two powerful, interactive, online viewers, the Data Set Viewer and the Gridded Data Viewer (www.socat.info), enable investigation of the SOCAT synthesis and gridded data products. SOCAT data products can be downloaded. MataLb code is available for reading these files. Ocean Data View also provides access to the SOCAT data products (www.socat.info). SOCAT data products are discoverable, accessible and citable.

SOCAT versions 3 to 5 should be cited as Bakker et al., 2016 (until a publication on versions 4 and 5 is published). The SOCAT Fair Data Use Statement (www.socat.info) asks users to generously acknowledge the contribution of SOCAT scientists by invitation to co-authorship, especially for data providers in regional studies, and/or reference to relevant scientific articles.

The SOCAT website (www.socat.info) provides a single access point for online viewers, downloadable data sets, the Fair Data Use Statement, a list of contributors and an overview of scientific publications on and using SOCAT. Automation of data upload and initial data checks allows annual releases of SOCAT from version 4 onward. SOCAT enables quantification of the ocean carbon sink and ocean acidification and evaluation of ocean biogeochemical models. More than 180 peer-reviewed scientific publications and high-impact reports cite SOCAT. SOCAT represents a milestone in research coordination, data access, biogeochemical and climate research and in informing policy.
  • Cite as: Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Landa, Camilla S.; Metzl, Nicolas; O'Brien, Kevin M.; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Catherine E.; Harasawa, Sumiko; Jones, Steve D.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Schuster, Ute; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frédéric; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim I.; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard A.; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steve; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Harlay, Jérôme; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Huss, Betty E.; Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Johannessen, Truls; Keeling, Ralph F.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley B.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Tim; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David J.; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joseph E.; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Kazuaki, Tadokoro; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Vandemark, Douglas; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing (2017). Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Database Version 5 (SOCATv5) (NCEI Accession 0163180). Version 2.2. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. [access date]
gov.noaa.nodc:0163180
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Distribution Formats
  • Originator data format
Ordering Instructions Data may be searched and downloaded using online services provided by NCEI using the online resource URLs in this record. Contact NCEI Information Services for custom orders. When requesting data from NCEI, the desired data set may be referred to by the unique package identification number listed in this metadata record.
Distributor DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact Information Services
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Time Period 1957-01-01 to 2016-12-31
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
N: 90
S: -90
E: 180
W: -180
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
  • Project Metadata
    Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
  • Dataset Description
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  • Descriptive Information
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Publication Dates
  • publication: 2017-06-08
  • revision: 2017-06-23
Edition 2.2
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Data Update Frequency As needed
Purpose To provide the synthesis and gridded, quality controlled, observational products of surface ocean fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) for the global oceans and coastal seas
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Landa, Camilla S.; Metzl, Nicolas; O'Brien, Kevin M.; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Catherine E.; Harasawa, Sumiko; Jones, Steve D.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Schuster, Ute; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frédéric; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim I.; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard A.; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steve; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Harlay, Jérôme; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Huss, Betty E.; Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Johannessen, Truls; Keeling, Ralph F.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley B.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Tim; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David J.; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joseph E.; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Kazuaki, Tadokoro; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Vandemark, Douglas; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing (2017). Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Database Version 5 (SOCATv5) (NCEI Accession 0163180). Version 2.2. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. [access date]
Cited Authors
  • Bakker, Dorothee C. E.
  • Pfeil, Benjamin
  • Landa, Camilla S.
  • Metzl, Nicolas
  • O'Brien, Kevin M.
  • Olsen, Are
  • Smith, Karl
  • Cosca, Catherine E.
  • Harasawa, Sumiko
  • Jones, Steve D.
  • Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro
  • Nojiri, Yukihiro
  • Schuster, Ute
  • Steinhoff, Tobias
  • Sweeney, Colm
  • Takahashi, Taro
  • Tilbrook, Bronte
  • Wada, Chisato
  • Wanninkhof, Rik
  • Alin, Simone R.
  • Balestrini, Carlos F.
  • Barbero, Leticia
  • Bates, Nicholas
  • Bianchi, Alejandro A.
  • Bonou, Frédéric
  • Boutin, Jacqueline
  • Bozec, Yann
  • Burger, Eugene F.
  • Cai, Wei-Jun
  • Castle, Robert D.
  • Chen, Liqi
  • Chierici, Melissa
  • Currie, Kim I.
  • Evans, Wiley
  • Featherstone, Charles
  • Feely, Richard A.
  • Fransson, Agneta
  • Goyet, Catherine
  • Greenwood, Naomi
  • Gregor, Luke
  • Hankin, Steve
  • Hardman-Mountford, Nick
  • Harlay, Jérôme
  • Hauck, Judith
  • Hoppema, Mario
  • Humphreys, Matthew P.
  • Hunt, Christopher W.
  • Huss, Betty E.
  • Ibánhez, J. Severino P.
  • Johannessen, Truls
  • Keeling, Ralph F.
  • Kitidis, Vassilis
  • Körtzinger, Arne
  • Kozyr, Alex
  • Krasakopoulou, Evangelia
  • Kuwata, Akira
  • Landschützer, Peter
  • Lauvset, Siv K.
  • Lefèvre, Nathalie
  • Lo Monaco, Claire
  • Manke, Ansley B.
  • Mathis, Jeremy T.
  • Merlivat, Liliane
  • Millero, Frank J.
  • Monteiro, Pedro M. S.
  • Munro, David R.
  • Murata, Akihiko
  • Newberger, Tim
  • Omar, Abdirahman M.
  • Ono, Tsuneo
  • Paterson, Kristina
  • Pearce, David J.
  • Pierrot, Denis
  • Robbins, Lisa L.
  • Saito, Shu
  • Salisbury, Joseph E.
  • Schlitzer, Reiner
  • Schneider, Bernd
  • Schweitzer, Roland
  • Sieger, Rainer
  • Skjelvan, Ingunn
  • Sullivan, Kevin F.
  • Sutherland, Stewart C.
  • Sutton, Adrienne J.
  • Kazuaki, Tadokoro
  • Telszewski, Maciej
  • Tuma, Matthias
  • van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.
  • Vandemark, Douglas
  • Ward, Brian
  • Watson, Andrew J.
  • Xu, Suqing
Principal Investigators
Contributors
Resource Providers
Publishers
Acknowledgments
  • Funding Information: EU, NOAA, NSF, Japan Climate Research Programs
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
Cruise ID
  • Moorings
  • SOOP cruises
EXPOCODE
  • Various EXPOCODEs
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS > CARBON DIOXIDE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > SURFACE SALINITY
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALINITY
Provider Variable Names
  • ATM_PPRE
  • EQ_PRE
  • EQ_TMP
  • SSS
  • SST
  • fCO2
Reference Section ID
  • Coastal Carbon Project
  • Moorings an time series project
  • SOOP
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/OAR/PMEL > Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > INDIAN OCEAN
  • OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
Provider Geographic Names
  • Arctic Ocean
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Indian Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Ocean Acidification Search Keywords
  • Ocean Carbon Data System (OCADS) Project
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Landa, Camilla S.; Metzl, Nicolas; O'Brien, Kevin M.; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Catherine E.; Harasawa, Sumiko; Jones, Steve D.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Schuster, Ute; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frédéric; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim I.; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard A.; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steve; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Harlay, Jérôme; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Huss, Betty E.; Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Johannessen, Truls; Keeling, Ralph F.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley B.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Tim; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David J.; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joseph E.; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Kazuaki, Tadokoro; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Vandemark, Douglas; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing (2017). Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Database Version 5 (SOCATv5) (NCEI Accession 0163180). Version 2.2. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. [access date]
Access Constraints
  • NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
  • Digital data may be downloaded from NCEI at no charge in most cases. For custom orders of digital data or to obtain a copy of analog materials, please contact NCEI Information Services for information about current fees.
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2017-06-08T19:43:09 - NCEI Accession 0163180 v1.1 was published.
  • 2017-06-23T00:36:19 - NCEI Accession 0163180 was revised and v2.2 was published.
    Rationale: Updates were received for this data set. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • Parameter or Variable: pCO2 (fCO2) autonomous; Abbreviation: fCO2; Unit: uatm; Observation type: Surface underway; Measured or calculated: fCO2 recomputed from the raw data; Equilibrator type: ; Equilibrator volume: ; How was pressure inside the equilibrator measured: ; SEA CO2 gas detector resolution: Accuracy: better than 5 uatm ; Quality flag convention: WOCE quality control flags are used: 2 = good value, 3 = questionable value, 4 = bad value; Researcher name: SOCAT Team.
  • Parameter or Variable: Sea Surface Salinity; Abbreviation: SSS; Observation type: measured, data synthesis; Researcher name: SOCAT team.
  • Parameter or Variable: Sea Surface Temperature; Abbreviation: SST; Unit: Deg. C; Observation type: measured, data synthesis; Researcher name: SOCAT Team.
  • Parameter or Variable: Atmospheric Pressure; Abbreviation: ATM_PPRE; Unit: DBAR; Observation type: measured, data synthesis; Researcher name: SOCAT Team.
  • Parameter or Variable: Pressure at Equilibrator; Abbreviation: EQ_PRE; Unit: DBAR; Observation type: measured, data synthesis; Researcher name: SOCAT Team.
  • Parameter or Variable: Water Temperature at Equilibrator; Abbreviation: EQ_TMP; Unit: Deg. C; Observation type: measured, data synthesis; Researcher name: SOCAT Team.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer
  • Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement
Platform
  • VARIOUS CHARTERED VESSELS
Last Modified: 2018-05-15T05:10:56
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