Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean (NCEI Accession 0164568)


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            title:  Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean (NCEI Accession 0164568)
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                date:  2017-08-04
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                  Anchor:  DOI 10.3334/cdiac/otg.ndp094
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                  Anchor:  NCEI Accession Number 0164568
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                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/person/details/2113 Taro Takahashi
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                individualName:  Takahashi, T.
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        abstract:  Climatological mean monthly distributions of pH in the total H+ scale, total CO2 concentration (TCO2), and the degree of CaCO3 saturation for the global surface ocean waters (excluding coastal areas) are calculated using a data set for pCO2, alkalinity and nutrient concentrations in surface waters (depths less than 50 m), which is built upon the GLODAP, CARINA and LDEO database. The mutual consistency among these measured parameters is demonstrated using the inorganic carbon chemistry model with the dissociation constants for carbonic acid by Lueker et al. (2000) and for boric acid by Dickson (1990). The global ocean is divided into 24 regions, and the linear potential alkalinity (total alkalinity + nitrate) versus salinity relationships are established for each region. The mean monthly distributions of pH and carbon chemistry parameters for the reference year 2005 are computed using the climatological mean monthly pCO2 data adjusted to a reference year 2005 and the alkalinity estimated from the potential alkalinity versus salinity relationships. The climatological monthly mean values of pCO2 over the global ocean are compiled for a 4° x 5° grid for the reference year 2005, and the gridded data for each of 12 months are included in this database. This is updated version of Takahashi et al. (2009) for the reference year 2000 representing non-El Niño years using a database of about 6.5 million pCO2 data (less coastal areas of North and South America) observed in 1957-2012 (Takahashi et al., 2013). The equatorial zone (4°N-4°S) of the Pacific is excluded from the analysis because of the large interannual changes associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. The pH thus calculated ranges from 7.9 to 8.2. Lower values are located in the upwelling regions in the tropical Pacific and in the Arabian and Bering Seas; and higher values are found in the subpolar and polar waters during the spring-summer months of intense photosynthetic production. The vast areas of subtropical oceans have seasonally varying pH values ranging from 8.05 during warmer months to 8.15 during colder months. The warm tropical and subtropical waters are supersaturated by a factor of as much as 4.2 with respect to aragonite and 6.3 for calcite, whereas the cold subpolar and polar waters are less supersaturated only by 1.2 for aragonite and 2 for calcite because of the lower pH values resulting from greater TCO2 concentrations. In the western Arctic Ocean, aragonite undersaturation is observed.
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                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
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                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  GCMD Keyword Forum Page
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
            keyword:  OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
            keyword:  OCEAN > INDIAN OCEAN
            keyword:  OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
            keyword:  OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2019-11-12
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  9.0
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Global Change Data Center, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  GCMD Keyword Forum Page
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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            useLimitation:  accessLevel: Public
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Takahashi, T.; Sutherland, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Goddard, J.G.; Newberger, T.; Sweeney, C. (2017). Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean (NCEI Accession 0164568). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3334/cdiac/otg.ndp094. Accessed [date].
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useLimitation:  Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
        language:
          LanguageCode:  eng
        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) environment
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
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                westBoundLongitude:  -180
                eastBoundLongitude:  180
                southBoundLatitude:  -90
                northBoundLatitude:  90
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1957-01-01
                    endPosition:  2013-12-12
        supplementalInformation: (missing)
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/OAS/prd/institution/details/1730 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  301-713-3277
                        facsimile:  301-713-3300
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  Federal Building 151 Patton Avenue
                        city:  Asheville
                        administrativeArea:  NC
                        postalCode:  28801-5001
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
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                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free. However, fees may apply for custom orders, data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
                orderingInstructions:  Contact NCEI for other distribution options and instructions.
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                    linkage: https://doi.org/10.3334/cdiac/otg.ndp094
                    protocol:  HTTPS
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                    name:  Dataset Description
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/oas/164568
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  Descriptive Information
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
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            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  22.34
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                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/download/164568
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  HTTPS
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                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  22.34
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                    linkage: ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/nodc/archive/arc0110/0164568/
                    protocol:  FTP
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                    name:  FTP
                    description:  These data are available through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). You may use any FTP client to download these data.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
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            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NCEI Accession 0164568 v1.1 was published.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2017-08-04T23:03:20Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0164568 v1.1
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
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                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0164568/1.1
                                    protocol:  HTTPS
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0164568 v1.1
                                    description:  published 2017-08-04T23:03:20Z
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer
            type:  Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer
            description:  Carbon dioxide gas analyzer has often been referred to as LI-COR, because a lot of researchers choose to use products manufactured by LI-COR incorporation for their carbon dioxide measurement. The main component of a carbon dioxide analyzer is a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopic sensors to detect CO2 in a gaseous environment by its characteristic absorption. Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer works together with carbon dioxide (CO2) equilibrator (insttypes_id 184) to measure carbon dioxide in the water. To measure water carbon dioxide, water needs to be continuously supplied to a showerhead inside an equilibrator. As the water flows through the equilibrator chamber, dissolved carbon dioxide exchanges quickly with air in the headspace. This air is then sampled by the carbon dioxide analyzer to determine the mole fraction of CO2 in water.
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  pH sensors
            type:  pH sensors
            description:  generic meter used to measure pH Any of a class of instruments used to quantify pH in a water or other type of sample.
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement
            type:  Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement
            description:  A carbon dioxide equilibrator is usually in the shape of a vertical tube, with a shower head on the top, some head space, a lot of beads to increase the surface exchange area between water and air, a water seal device at the bottom to allow water to overflow, but prevents air exchange between inside and outside. Carbon dioxide (CO2) equilibrator works together with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer (insttypes_id 183) to measure carbon dioxide in the water. To measure water carbon dioxide, water needs to be continuously supplied to a showerhead inside an equilibrator. As the water flows through the equilibrator chamber, dissolved carbon dioxide exchanges quickly with air in the headspace. This air is then sampled by the carbon dioxide analyzer to determine the mole fraction of CO2 in water.
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  titrator
            type:  titrator
            description:  titrator