Autonomous seawater partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and pH time series from 40 surface buoys between 2004 and 2017 (NCEI Accession 0173932)


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            title:  Autonomous seawater partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and pH time series from 40 surface buoys between 2004 and 2017 (NCEI Accession 0173932)
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                date:  2018-06-22
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        abstract:  This NCEI Accession consists of the data synthesis product files that include autonomous seawater pCO2, pH, sea surface temperature and salinity time series measurements from 40 surface buoys between 2004 and 2017. Ship-based time series, some now approaching over three decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous ocean carbon observing technology over the last two decades have led to the expansion of fixed time series stations with the added capability of characterizing sub-seasonal variability. Here we present a data product of 40 autonomous moored surface ocean pCO2 and pH time series established between 2004 and 2013. These time series characterize a wide range of seawater pCO2 and pH conditions in different oceanic (17 sites) and coastal (13 sites) regimes including coral reefs (10 sites). With well-constrained daily to interannual variability and an estimate of decadal variability, these data suggest the length of time series necessary to detect an anthropogenic trend in seawater pCO2 and pH varies from 8 to 15 years at the open ocean sites, 16 to 41 years at the coastal sites, and 9 to 22 years at the coral reef sites. Only two open ocean pCO2 time series, WHOTS in the subtropical North Pacific and Stratus in the South Pacific gyre, are longer than the estimated time of emergence, and deseasoned monthly means show anthropogenic trends of 1.9+/-0.3 µatm yr-1 and 1.6+/-0.3 µatm yr-1, respectively. In the future, it is possible that updates to this product will allow for estimating anthropogenic trends at more sites; however, the product currently provides a valuable tool in an accessible format for evaluating climatology and natural variability of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in a variety of regions.
        purpose:  This dataset is available to the public for a wide variety of uses including scientific research and analysis.
        credit:  Funding Information: Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division of NOAA's Climate Program Office, NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (High-Resolution Ocean and Atmosphere pCO2 Time-Series Measurements)
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            keyword:  OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
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            keyword:  Indian Ocean
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            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Sutton, Adrienne J.; Feely, Richard A.; Maenner Jones, Stacy; Musielewicz, Sylvia; Osborne, John; Dietrich, Colin; Monacci, Natalie M.; Cross, Jessica N.; Bott, Randy; Kozyr, Alex (2018). Autonomous seawater partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and pH time series from 40 surface buoys between 2004 and 2017 (NCEI Accession 0173932). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.7289/v5db8043. Accessed [date].
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                title:  Sutton, A. J., Feely, R. A., Maenner-Jones, S., Musielwicz, S., Osborne, J., Dietrich, C., Monacci, N., Cross, J., Bott, R., Kozyr, A., Andersson, A. J., Bates, N. R., Cai, W.-J., Cronin, M. F., De Carlo, E. H., Hales, B., Howden, S. D., Lee, C. M., Manzello, D. P., McPhaden, M. J., Meléndez, M., Mickett, J. B., Newton, J. A., Noakes, S. E., Noh, J. H., Olafsdottir, S. R., Salisbury, J. E., Send, U., Trull, T. W., Vandemark, D. C., and Weller, R. A.: Autonomous seawater pCO2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 421-439, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-11-421-2019, 2019.
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0173932 v1.1 was published.
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                  DateTime:  2018-06-22T18:31:20Z
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                                    description:  published 2018-06-22T18:31:20Z
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                description:  Parameter or Variable: seawater pCO2 at 0.5m depth; Abbreviation: pCO2_sw; Unit: µatm; Observation type: Surface time series; Uncertainty: uncertainty less than 2; Researcher name: Sutton, Adrienne J.; Researcher institution: NOAA PMEL.
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                description:  Parameter or Variable: air pCO2 at 0.5-1m height; Abbreviation: pCO2_air; Unit: µatm; Observation type: Surface time series; Uncertainty: uncertainty less than 1; Researcher name: Sutton, Adrienne J.; Researcher institution: NOAA PMEL.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: air xCO2 at 0.5-1m height; Abbreviation: xCO2_air; Unit: µmol mol-1; Observation type: Surface time series; Uncertainty: uncertainty less than 1; Researcher name: Sutton, Adrienne J.; Researcher institution: NOAA PMEL.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: seawater pH at 0.5m depth; Abbreviation: pH_sw; Observation type: Surface time series; Uncertainty: uncertainty less than 0.02; Researcher name: Sutton, Adrienne J.; Researcher institution: NOAA PMEL.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: Sea surface temperature at 0.5m depth; Abbreviation: SST_C; Unit: degrees celcius; Observation type: Surface time series; Sampling instrument: ; Uncertainty: uncertainty less than 0.01; Researcher name: Sutton, Adrienne J.; Researcher institution: NOAA PMEL.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: Sea surface salinity at 0.5m depth; Abbreviation: SSS; Observation type: Surface time series; Uncertainty: uncertainty less than 0.05; Researcher name: Sutton, Adrienne J.; Researcher institution: NOAA PMEL.
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                code:  Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer
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            description:  Carbon dioxide gas analyzer has often been referred to as LI-COR, because a lot of researchers choose to use products manufactured by LI-COR incorporation for their carbon dioxide measurement. The main component of a carbon dioxide analyzer is a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopic sensors to detect CO2 in a gaseous environment by its characteristic absorption. Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer works together with carbon dioxide (CO2) equilibrator (insttypes_id 184) to measure carbon dioxide in the water. To measure water carbon dioxide, water needs to be continuously supplied to a showerhead inside an equilibrator. As the water flows through the equilibrator chamber, dissolved carbon dioxide exchanges quickly with air in the headspace. This air is then sampled by the carbon dioxide analyzer to determine the mole fraction of CO2 in water.
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