Global Historical Climatology Network - Monthly (GHCN-M), Version 3

browse graphicGHCN-M Station Map
**Please note, GHCN-Monthly provides climatological observations for four elements; monthly mean maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, and monthly total precipitation. Precipitation are available in version 2, monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature in version 3, and monthly mean temperature is also now available in the Version 4 BETA release. Users of monthly mean temperature should use the most recently available fully operational version except in some cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used a previous version).** Since the early 1990s the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly (GHCN-M) dataset has been an internationally recognized source of data for the study of observed variability and change in land surface air temperature. It provides monthly mean temperature data for 7280 stations from 226 countries and territories, ongoing monthly updates of more than 2000 stations to support monitoring of current and evolving climate conditions, and homogeneity adjustments to remove non-climatic influences that can bias the observed temperature record. The release of version 3 monthly mean temperature data in 2011 introduced a number of improvements and changes from the previous release that included consolidating "duplicate" series, updating records from recent decades, and the use of new approaches to homogenization and quality assurance.
Users should cite this dataset as: Jay H. Lawrimore, Matthew J. Menne, Byron E. Gleason, Claude N. Williams, David B. Wuertz, Russell S. Vose, and Jared Rennie (2011): Global Historical Climatology Network - Monthly (GHCN-M), Version 3. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5X34VDR [access date].
Download Data
  • NCEI Public FTP Server (download)
    Access to the data via FTP. (Available for a limited time only--see Version 4 BETA release for more information)
Distribution Formats
  • fixed-length ASCII text
    • File Specification: See GHCN-M documentation for details.
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact GHCN-M Product Team
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
+1 (828) 271-4800
ncdc.ghcnm@noaa.gov or
Dataset Point of Contact Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Time Period: 1701-01-01 to Present
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates:
N: 90.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map:
Dataset Information
General Documentation
Associated Resources
Date(s)
  • publication: 1997-01-01
  • revision: 2015-06-09
Edition: Version 3
Data Presentation Form: Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Ongoing
Data Update Frequency: Daily
Purpose: To monitor long-term trends in temperature.
Dataset Citation Users should cite this dataset as: Jay H. Lawrimore, Matthew J. Menne, Byron E. Gleason, Claude N. Williams, David B. Wuertz, Russell S. Vose, and Jared Rennie (2011): Global Historical Climatology Network - Monthly (GHCN-M), Version 3. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5X34VDR [access date].
Originator(s)
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Principal Investigator(s)
  • Jay H. Lawrimore
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator(s)
  • Matthew J. Menne
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Byron E. Gleason
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Claude N. Williams
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • David B. Wuertz
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Russell S. Vose
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Jared Rennie
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Publisher(s)
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Time Period: 1701-01-01 to Present
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates:
N: 90.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map:
Theme keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > MAXIMUM/MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
Data Center keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Platform keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
  • METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS
Instrument keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
  • THERMOMETERS
  • RAIN GAUGES
  • BAROMETERS
Place keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL
Stratum keywords Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • VERTICAL LOCATION > LAND SURFACE
Use Constraints
  • **Please note, GHCN-Monthly provides climatological observations for four elements; monthly mean maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, and monthly total precipitation. Precipitation are available in version 2, monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature in version 3, and monthly mean temperature is also now available in the Version 4 BETA release. Users of monthly mean temperature should use the most recently available fully operational version except in some cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used a previous version).**
  • Users should cite this dataset as: Jay H. Lawrimore, Matthew J. Menne, Byron E. Gleason, Claude N. Williams, David B. Wuertz, Russell S. Vose, and Jared Rennie (2011): Global Historical Climatology Network - Monthly (GHCN-M), Version 3. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5X34VDR [access date].
  • Publications using this dataset should also reference the following article: J. H. Lawrimore, M. J. Menne, B. E. Gleason, C. N. Williams, D. B. Wuertz, R. S. Vose, and J. Rennie (2011), An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network monthly mean temperature data set, version 3, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D19121, doi:10.1029/2011JD016187.
  • NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NCEI makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement GHCN-Monthly Version 3 is a standardized view of thousands of meteorological stations across the world. Each data point is subject to extensive quality control procedures and duplication checks to ensure the that the highest quality observations are included. For more information, please review documentation.
Processor
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Processing Steps
  • 2012-09-06T00:00:00 - GHCNM 3.2.0 was released on 9/6/2012
  • 2013-02-12T00:00:00 - GHCNM 3.2.1 was released on 2/12/2013
  • 2013-08-03T00:00:00 - GHCNM 3.2.2 was released on 8/3/2013
  • 2015-06-09T00:00:00 - GHCNM 3.3.0 was released on 6/9/2015
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • RAIN GAUGES
  • THERMOMETERS
  • BAROMETERS
Platform
  • METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS
Last Modified: 2017-06-09
For questions about the information on this page, please email: ncei.orders@noaa.gov